Syntheses of Prostaglandin E2 and E-Cadherin and Gene Expression of β-defensin-2 by Human Gingival Epithelial Cells in Response to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
The interaction between epithelial cells and microorganisms is the most important step in bacterial infections. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was suggested to play a significant role in the initiation of periodontitis because of its bacteriological characteristics. Prostaglandins (PG) mediate the inflammatory response. Human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide and contributes to innate immunity. E-cadherin is responsible for an epithelial intercellular junction. In this study, we investigated the syntheses of PGE2 and E-cadherin and the expression of hBD-2 in human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) following exposure to A. actinomycetemcomitans. The levels of PGE2 and cyclooxygenase-2, which are responsible for an increase in PGE2, were increased depending on bacteria exposure time. hBD-2 mRNA was induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans, while HGEC exposed to A. actinomycetemcomitans showed a decrease in E-cadherin levels. Etodolac, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor reinforced the increase in hBD-2 mRNA levels by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Furthermore, the etodolac suppressed the decrease in E-cadherin levels. Thus, endogenous PGE2 is involved in the hBD-2 and E-cadherin responses of HGEC to A. actinomycetemcomitans. These findings suggest that the inflammatory and antimicrobial response of gingival epithelial cells to A. actinomycetemcomitans is involved in the initiation of periodontal inflammation. A. actinomycetemcomitans may destroy the mechanical epithelial barrier by destroying E-cadherin.
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