Hydrobiologia

, Volume 525, Issue 1–3, pp 131–138 | Cite as

Food Provisioning in Red-Necked Grebes (Podiceps Grisegena) at Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) Ponds

  • Janusz Kloskowski
Article

Abstract

Parental feeding patterns were studied in red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena) broods throughout the entire period of parental care in a common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish-pond area in SE Poland in 1993–2002. Fish formed a substantial part of prey provided to the flightless young from their second week of life. Although the numbers of large invertebrates and tadpoles, the alternative prey to fish, did not decrease during the chick rearing period, grebe parents gradually shifted from delivering predominately invertebrates to delivering fish, and the average size of fish fed to chicks increased with brood age. Broods with relatively high fledging success (at least two chicks fledged) had a larger proportion of fish in their diet than broods seriously reduced because of undernourishment. The dive duration of foraging grebe parents did not differ between carp, wild fish and non-fish prey, but carp prey required significantly more time for handling. The percentage of prey rejected by chicks increased over the prefledging period from 2 to 24%. Of the prey rejected, 82% were fish apparently too large for the young to swallow. Fish prevalence in the diet of red-necked grebe chicks at carp ponds contradicts the results of other studies on the feeding habits of the nominative subspecies during breeding season. However, the red-necked grebe is a gape-limited predator and the piscivory of the chicks is limited to small-bodied fish.

foraging behaviour prey suitability fish exploitation time budgets fish-ponds 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bayer, R. D., 1985. Bill length of herons and egrets as an estimator of prey size. Colonial Waterbirds 8: 104-109.Google Scholar
  2. Borodulina, T. L., 1976. Vidovyje osobennosti pitanija i niekotoryje adaptacii palearkticheskih poganok. Bjulletin Moskovskogo Obscestva Ispytatelej Prirody, Otdel Biologiceskij 8: 10-21.Google Scholar
  3. Chamberlin, M. L., 1977. Observations on the red-necked grebe nesting in Michigan. Wilson Bulletin 89: 33-46.Google Scholar
  4. Cummins, K. W. & J. C. Wuycheck, 1971. Caloric equivalents for investigations in ecological energetics. Mitteilungen der Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 18: 1-158.Google Scholar
  5. Elmberg, J., P. Nummi, H. Pöysä & K. Sjöberg, 1992. Do intruding predators and trap position affect the reliability of catches in activity traps? Hydrobiologia 239: 187-193.Google Scholar
  6. Fjeldså, J., 1982. The adaptive significance of local variations in the bill and jaw anatomy of North European red-necked grebes Podiceps grisegena. Ornis Fennica 59: 84-98.Google Scholar
  7. GenStat 5 Committee, 2000. GenStat 5 Release 4.2 Reference Manual Supplement. GenStat, Oxford, 782 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Hagemeijer, E. J. M. & M. J. Blair (eds), 1997. The EBCC atlas of European breeding birds: their distribution and abundance. T and A D Poyser, London.Google Scholar
  9. Harris, M. P. & J. R. G. Hislop, 1978. The food of young puffins Fratercula arctica. Journal of Zoology, London 185: 213-236.Google Scholar
  10. Hislop, J. R. G., M. P. Harris & J. G. M. Smith, 1991. Variation in the calorific value and total energy content of the lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) and other fish preyed on by seabirds. Journal of Zoology, London 224: 501-517.Google Scholar
  11. Kloskowski, J., 2000. Reproduction and feeding success of the red-necked grebe Podiceps grisegena at fish ponds in SE Poland. In Proceedings of the Second Meeting of the European Ornithologist Union, Gdańsk 1999. Acta Ornithologica 35: 85-89.Google Scholar
  12. Kloskowski, J., 2001. Temporal patterns of parental resource distribution in the red-necked grebe: equalizing the share of the survivors. Behaviour 138: 1355-1370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kloskowski, J., 2003. Brood reduction in the red-necked grebe Podiceps grisegena. Ibis 145: 233-243.Google Scholar
  14. Korinek, V., J. Fott, J. Fuksa, J. Lellák & M. Praž áková, 1987. Carp Ponds of Central Europe. In Michael, R. G. (ed.), Managed aquatic ecosystems. Ecosystems of the World, 29, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam: 29-62.Google Scholar
  15. Madsen, F. J., 1957. On the food habits of some fish eating birds in Denmark. Danish Review of Game Biology 3: 19- 83.Google Scholar
  16. Markuze, V. K., 1965. K ékologii poganok v svyazi s rybovodstvom v del’te Volgi. Ornitologiya 7: 244-257.Google Scholar
  17. Marquiss, M. & A. F. Leitch, 1990. The diet of grey herons Ardea cinerea breeding at Loch Leven, Scotland, and the importance of their predation on ducklings. Ibis 132: 535-549.Google Scholar
  18. Moser, M. E., 1986: Prey profitability for adult grey herons Ardea cinerea and the constraints on prey size when feeding young nestlings. Ibis 128: 392-405.Google Scholar
  19. Murkin, H. R., P. G. Abbott & J. A. Kadlec, 1983. A comparison of activity traps and sweep nets for sampling nektonic invertebrates in wetlands. Freshwater Invertebrate Biology 2: 99-106.Google Scholar
  20. Ohanjanian, I. A., 1989. Food flights of red-necked grebes during the breeding season. Journal of Field Ornithology 60: 143-153.Google Scholar
  21. Onno, S., 1960. Zur Ökologie der Lappentaucher (Podiceps cristatus, griseigena und auritus) in Estland. XII International Ornithological Congress Vol. 2. Helsinki: 577-582.Google Scholar
  22. Patterson, H. D. & R. Thompson, 1971. Recovery of interblock information when block sizes are unequal. Biometrika 58: 545-554.Google Scholar
  23. Piersma, T., 1988. Body size, nutrient reserves and diet of rednecked and Slavonian grebes Podiceps grisegena and P. auritus on Lake Ijsselmeer, The Netherlands. Bird Study 35: 13-24.Google Scholar
  24. Pyke, G. H., H. R. Pulliam & E. L. Charnov, 1977. Optimal foraging: a selective review of theory and tests. Quarterly Review of Biology 108: 137-154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Reimchen, T. E. & S. D. Douglas, 1985. Differential contribution of the sexes to pre-fledged young in red-throated loons. Auk 102: 198-201.Google Scholar
  26. Smogorzhevskii, L. O., 1959. Znachennya nortsiv Ukraini u rybnomu gospodarstwi. Kiivs’kii Derzhavnii Universitet im. T. G. Shevchenka Trudi Zoologichnogo Muzeyu 6: 85-91.Google Scholar
  27. Ulenaers, P. & A. A. Dhondt, 1994.Great crested grebe Podiceps cristatus chick mortality in relation to parental fishing. Bird Study 41: 211-220.Google Scholar
  28. Vlug, J. J., 1993. Habitatwahl des Rothalstauchers (Podiceps grisegena) in Schleswig-Holstein, in Zusammenhang mit seiner Nahrungsökologie. Corax 15: 91-117.Google Scholar
  29. Wagner, B. M. A., 1997. Influence of fish on the breeding of the red-necked grebe Podiceps grisegena (Boddaert, 1783). Hydrobiologia 344: 57-63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wagner, B. M. A. & L. A. Hansson, 1998. Food competition and niche separation between fish and the red-necked grebe Podiceps grisegena (Boddaert, 1783). Hydrobiologia 368: 75- 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wunderle, J. M., 1991. Age-specific foraging proficiency in birds. Current Omithology 8: 273-324.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janusz Kloskowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nature Conservation, Institute of BiologyM. Curie-Skłodowska UniversityPoland

Personalised recommendations