Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 245–252 | Cite as

Differential allelopathic expression of bark and seed of Tamarindus indica L.

  • Syeda Shahnaz Parvez
  • Mohammad Masud Parvez
  • Yoshiharu Fujii
  • Hiroshi Gemma


Allelopathic performance of the bark and seed of Tamarindus indica L. tree was evaluated through bioassay-guided studies using seven common agronomic crops (asparagus, cucumber, lettuce, radish, sesame, tomato and welsh onion) and seven weed species (barnyard grass, Chinese milk vetch, perennial ryegrass, phacelia, timothy grass, white clover and wild ginger) under laboratory conditions. As demonstrated by a sandwich method, the bark of the tamarind tree caused strong growth inhibition (compared to the corresponding controls) in both radicles and hypocotyls of the species tested, and the inhibitory effect was highest in barnyard grass (52–65%) and lowest in welsh onion (19–13%). The crude-water soluble extracts of bark at different concentrations (1, 5 and 10%) (w/v) exhibited a strong growth inhibition in all the plant species tested, and a proportional increase in the percentage of growth inhibition was observed with an increase in the concentrations of the extracts. The magnitude of inhibition in weed species was higher (5–60%) than those of agronomic crop species (3–40%). The growth of all the weed species tested was strongly inhibited (17–56%), while the agronomic crop species showed both inhibited (5–21%) and stimulated (5–27%) growth due to the effect of crude-water soluble exudates of tamarind seed. Among the agronomic crop species tested, lettuce (22–27%) followed by radish (20–25%) and sesame (5–8%) showed stimulatory growth with the crude-water soluble exudates of seed. In the pot culture experiments using four agronomic crops (lettuce, radish, tomato and cucumber) and two weed species (barnyard grass and white clover), spraying of crude-water soluble extracts of tamarind seed-coat at three different concentrations (1, 5 and 10%) (w/v) showed that the growth of lettuce (35–62%) and radish (32–56%) was stimulated, while all other species tested showed growth inhibition (29–61%). When the spraying of crude extracts of seed-coat was turned off, the growth of both lettuce and radish continued to be stimulated (4–7%) and all other previously inhibited species recovered well, the recovery percentage ranging between 78 and 82%. However, when spraying of crude extracts of seed-coat was continued, growth increased (10–14%) in lettuce and radish, and reduced (37–76%) in four other species tested. The inhibitory or stimulatory effects of the crude extracts on agronomic crop and weed species were higher in the radicle than the hypocotyl and reached a peak with 10% (w/v) concentrations. These results clearly demonstrated the differential allelopathic effects (inhibitory and excitatory) of bark and seed of tamarind tree in the species tested. Thus, it is evident that these two organs contain certain biologically active true growth regulator(s) and are either additively or synergistically involved in the plant-specific expression, particularly by the seed-coat.

Allelopathy Bark Growth inhibition Seed Tamarind 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Balogun A.M. and Fetuga B.L. 1986. Chemical composition of some under-exploited leguminous crop seeds in Nigeria. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 34: 189–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berenbaum M.R. 1985. Interactions among allelochemicals in plants. Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 19: 139–169.Google Scholar
  3. Dayan E., Romagni J.G. and Duke S.O. 2000. Investigating the mode of action of natural phytotoxins. J. Chem. Ecol. 26: 2079–2094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Einhelling F.A. 1996. Interactions involving allelopathy in cropping systems. Agron. J. 88: 886–893.Google Scholar
  5. Hoch W.A., Zeldin E.L. and McCown B.H. 2000. Resistance to the birch leaf-miner Fensua pusilla (Hymenoptera: Tentredinidae) within the genus Betula. J. Econ. Ento. 93: 1810–1813.Google Scholar
  6. Imbabi E.S., Ibrahim K.E., Ahmed B.M., Abulfutuh I.M. and Hulbert P. 1992. Chemical characterization of tamarind bitter principal, tamarindineal. Fitoterapia 6: 537–538.Google Scholar
  7. Keinanen M., Titto R.J., Rousi M. and Tahvanainen J. 1999. Taxonomic implications of phenolic variation in leaves of birch (Betula grossa L.) species. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 27: 243–254.Google Scholar
  8. Kushima M., Kakuta H., Kosemura S., Yamamura S., Yamada K., Yokotani-Tomita K. and Hasegawa K. 1998. An allelopathic substance exuded from germinating watermelon seeds. Plant Growth Regul. 25: 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lewis Y.S. and Neelakantan S. 1964. The chemistry, biochemistry and technology of tamarind. J. Sci. Indus. Res. 23: 204–206.Google Scholar
  10. Marangoni A., Alli I. and Kermasha S. 1988. Composition and properties of seeds of the tree legume Tamarindus indica. J. Food. Sci. 53: 1452–1455.Google Scholar
  11. Parvez S.S., Parvez M.M., Fujii Y. and Gemma H. 2003a. Allelopathic competence of Tamarindus indica L. root involved in plant growth regulation. Plant Growth Regul.(in-press). ¦¦Author, please update reference¦¦Google Scholar
  12. Parvez S.S., Parvez M.M., Nishihara E., Gemma H. and Fujii Y. 2003b. Tamarindus indica L. leaf is a source of allelopathic substance. Plant Growth Regul.(in-press). ¦¦Author, please update reference¦¦Google Scholar
  13. Pino J.A. 1998. Volatile constituents of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.). Food Feed Chem. 292: 85–87.Google Scholar
  14. Pramanik M.H.R., Nagai M., Asao T. and Matsui Y. 2000. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on phytotoxic root exudates of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in hydroponic culture. J. Chem. Ecol. 26: 1953–1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Puntam A.R. and Duke W.B. 1974. Biological suppression of weeds: evidence for allelopathy in accessions of cucumber. Science 185: 370–372.Google Scholar
  16. Rice E.L. 1984. Allelopathy 2nd edn. Academic Press, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  17. Riffle M.S., Waller G.R., Murray D.S. and Sgaramello R.P. 1990. Devil's-claw (Proboscidea louisianica), essential oil and its components: potential allelochemical agents on cotton and wheat. J. Chem. Ecol. 16: 1927–1940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Riffle M.S., Thilsted W.E., Murray D.S., Ahring R.M. and Waller G.R. 1988. Germination and seed production of unicorn-plant (Proboscidea louisianica). Weed Sci. 36: 787–791.Google Scholar
  19. Russo V.M., Webber C.L. and Myers D.L. 1997. Kenaf extract affects germination and post-germination development of weed, grass and vegetable seeds. Indus. Crops Prod. 6: 59–69.Google Scholar
  20. Sahid I.B. and Sagau J.B. 1993. Allelopathic effect of lantana (Lantana camara) and siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) on selected crops. Weed Sci. 41: 303–308.Google Scholar
  21. Santamour J.F.S. and Lundgren L.N. 1997. Rhododendrin in Betula: a reapprisal. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 25: 335–341.Google Scholar
  22. Seigler D.S. 1996. Chemistry and mechanism of allelopathic interactions. Agron. J. 88: 876–885.Google Scholar
  23. Tukey H.B.J. 1969. Implications of allelopathy in agricultural plant science. Bot. Rev. 35: 1–16.Google Scholar
  24. Wong K.C., Tan C.P., Chow C.H. and Chee S.G. 1998. Volatile constituents of the fruit of Tamarindus indica L. J. Essent. Oil Res. 10: 219–221.Google Scholar
  25. Yamada K., Kosemura S., Yamamura S. and Hasegawa K. 1997. Exudation of allelopathic substance from seeds during germination. Plant Growth Regul. 22: 189–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Matsumoto et al 1999. ¦¦Author, please supply missing information¦¦Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syeda Shahnaz Parvez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohammad Masud Parvez
    • 2
  • Yoshiharu Fujii
    • 2
  • Hiroshi Gemma
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of PomologyInstitute of Agriculture and Forestry, University of TsukubaTsukuba Science City, IbarakiJapan
  2. 2.Chemical Ecology Unit, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 KannondaiTsukuba Science City, IbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations