Taxonomic status and geographic provenance of germplasm accessions in the Solanum nigrum L. complex: AFLP data
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Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) were employed within the taxonomically difficult Solanum nigrum L. complex in order to characterize the genetic diversity present in a collection of the Gatersleben Genebank, to classify taxonomically unknown material, and to correlate the clustering of the examined accessions with their geographic origin. The results from AFLP analyses using two primer combinations on 44 entries from five species led to the detection of four major clusters, simultaneously uncovering significant differences in the levels of genetic diversity within or between species. S. americanumexhibited the highest infraspecific variation despite close geographic origins, simultaneously being placed in a clearly separated cluster in comparison to the other examined species of the complex. In addition, these other species showed even less interspecific variation than was found at the infraspecific level in S. americanum. In terms of taxonomy, the application of AFLPs helped in the classification of 13 black nightshade accessions formerly only listed as Solanum sp. This also was confirmed by morphological determination. Furthermore, one accession formerly classified as S. physalifolium var. nitidibaccatum i) clustered with AFLPs and ii) was identified morphologically as S. villosum. Contradictory classifications remain for two further entries from the same species, found within the S. nigrum cluster after AFLP analyses, while belonging to S. physalifolium var. nitidibaccatum according to herbarium specimen. Finally, as indicated by the information on provenance in geographically separated subclusters in S. americanum and partially in S. villosum, clues on the currently unknown origin of accessions from the genebank seem feasible by AFLP data.
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