Advertisement

European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 110, Issue 3, pp 285–292 | Cite as

Characterization and PCR-based Typing of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria from Peppers and Tomatoes in Serbia

  • Aleksa Obradovic
  • Athanassios Mavridis
  • Klaus Rudolph
  • Jaap D. Janse
  • Momcilo Arsenijevic
  • Jeffrey B. Jones
  • Gerald V. Minsavage
  • Jaw-Fen Wang
Article

Abstract

During the last two decades bacterial strains associated with necrotic leaf spots of pepper and tomato fruit spots were collected in Serbia. Twenty-eight strains isolated from pepper and six from tomato were characterized. A study of their physiological and pathological characteristics, and fatty acid composition analysis revealed that all of the strains belong to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Being non-amylolytic and non-pectolytic, pathogenic on pepper but not on tomato, containing lower amounts of fatty acid 15 : 0 ante–iso, the pepper strains were designated as members of the A group of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. However, the tomato strains hydrolyzed starch and pectate, caused compatible reactions on tomato but not on pepper, had higher percent of 15 : 0 ante–iso fatty acid, and were classified into B phenotypic group and identified as X. vesicatoria. PCR primers were developed which amplified conserved DNA regions related to the hrp genes of different strains of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria associated with pepper and tomato. Restriction analysis of the PCR product resulted in different patterns and enabled grouping of the strains into four groups. When xanthomonads isolated from pepper and tomato in Serbia were analyzed, they clustered into two groups corresponding to the grouping based on their physiological and pathological characteristics. According to the reaction of pepper and tomato differential varieties, the strains from pepper belong to races P7 and P8 and tomato strains belong to the race T2. All strains were sensitive to copper and streptomycin. Advantages and disadvantages of various bacterial spot management practices are discussed.

bacterial spot hrp gene phenotypic grouping races restriction analysis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arsenijevic M (1992) Phytopathogenic Bacteria, Naucna knjiga, BelgradeGoogle Scholar
  2. Arsenijevic M (1997) Bacterial Plant Diseases, S Print, Novi Sad Balaz J (1994) Leaf spot of pepper caused by bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Contemporary Agriculture, special edition 42: 341–345Google Scholar
  3. Bouzar H, Jones JB, Stall RE, Hodge NC, Minsavage GV, Benedict AA and Alvarez AM (1994) Physiological, chemical, serological, and pathogenic analyses of a worldwide collection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria strains. Phytopathology 84: 663–671Google Scholar
  4. Bouzar H, Jones JB, Stall RE, Louws FJ, Schneider M, Rademaker JLW, de Bruijn FJ and Jackson LE (1999) Multiphasic analysis of xantomonads causing bacterial spot disease on tomato and pepper in the Caribbean and Central America: Evidence for common lineages within and between countries. Phytopathology 89: 328–335Google Scholar
  5. Buonaurio R, Stravato VM and Scortichini M (1994) Characterization of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria from Capsicum annuum L. in Italy. Plant Disease 78: 296–299Google Scholar
  6. Cook AA and Stall RE (1982) Distribution of races of Xanthomonas vesicatoria pathogenic on pepper. Plant Disease 66: 388–389Google Scholar
  7. Cuppels D and Kelman A (1974) Evaluation of selective media for isolation of soft-rot bacteria from soil and plant tissue. Phytopathology 64: 468–475Google Scholar
  8. Dye DW (1980) Xanthomonas. In: Schaad NW (ed) Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria (pp 45-49) American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  9. Dye DW, Starr MP and Stolp H (1964) Taxonomic classification of Xanthomonas vesicatoria based upon host specificity, bacteriophage sensitivity, and cultural characteristics. Journal of Phytopathology 51: 394–407Google Scholar
  10. Hampton R, Ball E and De Boer S (1990) Serological Methods for Detection and Identification of Viral and Bacterial Plant Pathogens, A Laboratory Manual, American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  11. Jones JB, Stall RE, Scott JW, Somodi GC, Bouzar H and Hodge NC (1995) A third tomato race of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Plant Disease 79: 395–398Google Scholar
  12. Jones JB, Bouzar H, Somodi GC, Stall RE and Pernezny K (1998a) Evidence for the preemptive nature of tomato race 3 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in Florida. Phytopathology 88: 33–38Google Scholar
  13. Jones JB, Stall RE and Bouzar H (1998b) Diversity among xanthomonads pathogenic on pepper and tomato. Annual Review of Phytopathology 36: 41–58Google Scholar
  14. Jones JB, Bouzar H, Stall RE, Almira EC, Roberts PD, Bowen BW, Sudberry J, Strickler PM and Chun J (2000) Systematic analysis of xanthomonads (Xanthomonas spp.) associated with pepper and tomato lesions. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 50: 1211–1219Google Scholar
  15. Klement Z, Farkas G and Lovrekovich L (1964) Hypersensitive reaction induced by phytopathogenic bacteria in the tobacco leaf. Phytopathology 54: 474–477Google Scholar
  16. Klement Z, Rudolph K and Sands DC (1990) Methods in Phytobacteriology, Akademiai Kiado, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  17. Kousik CS and Ritchie DF (1995) Isolation of pepper races 4 and5of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria from diseased peppers in southern US fields. Plant Disease 79: 540Google Scholar
  18. Kousik CS and Ritchie DF (1996) Race shift in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria within a season in field-grown pepper. Phytopathology 86: 952–958Google Scholar
  19. Kousik CS and Ritchie DF (1999) Development of bacterial spot on near-isogenic lines of bell pepper carrying gene pyramids composed of defeated major resistance genes. Phytopathology 89: 1066–1072Google Scholar
  20. Leite RP Jr, Jones JB, Somodi GC, Minsavage GV and Stall RE (1995) Detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria associated with pepper and tomato seed by DNA amplification. Plant Disease 79: 917–922Google Scholar
  21. Marco GM and Stall RE (1983) Control of bacterial spot of pepper initiated by strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria that differ in sensitivity to copper. Plant Disease 67: 779–781Google Scholar
  22. Mijatovic M, Obradovic A, Ivanovic M and Stevanovic D (1999) Distribution and occurrence intensity of some pepper viruses in Serbia. Plant Protection, Belgrade 228: 151–159Google Scholar
  23. Minsavage GV, Dahlbeck D, Whalen MC, Kearney B, Bonas U, Staskawicz BJ and Stall RE (1990) Gene-for-gene relationships specifying disease resistance in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria-pepper interactions. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 3: 41–47Google Scholar
  24. Mitrev S, Spasov D and Karov I (2001) Races of Xanthomonas vesicatoria isolated from pepper in Macedonia. 37th Croatian Symposium on Agriculture, Opatija, Croatia. Book of Abstracts 348Google Scholar
  25. Obradovic A, Arsenijevic M and Mijatovic M (1997) Bacteriosis of pepper. 3rd Yugoslav Meeting on Plant Protection, Zlatibor, Yugoslavia. Book of Abstracts 33–34Google Scholar
  26. Obradovic A, Mavridis A, Rudolph K and Arsenijevic M (1999) Characterization of pathogenic bacteria isolated from pepper in Yugoslavia. Phytomedizin 29(1): 40–41Google Scholar
  27. Obradovic A, Mavridis A, Rudolph K and Arsenijevic M (2000) Bacterial spot of capsicum and tomato in Yugoslavia. EPPO Bulletin 30: 333–336Google Scholar
  28. Obradovic A, Mavridis A, Rudolph K, Arsenijevic M and Mijatovic M (2001a) Bacterial diseases of pepper in Yugoslavia. In: De Boer SH (ed) Plant Pathogenic Bacteria (pp 255-258) Kluwer Academic Publishers, the NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  29. Obradovic A, Mavridis A, Rudolph K and Zdravkovic J (2001b) Sudden appearance of the tomato race of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in Yugoslavia. In: De Boer SH (ed) Plant Pathogenic Bacteria (pp 350-352) Kluwer Academic Publishers, the NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  30. Pohronezny K, Stall RE, Canteros BI, Kegley M, Datnoff LE and Subramanya R (1992) Sudden shift in the prevalent race of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper fields in southern Florida. Plant Disease 76: 118–120Google Scholar
  31. Ritchie DF and Dittapongpitch V (1991) Copper-and streptomycin-resistant strains and host differentiated races of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in North Carolina. Plant Disease 75: 733–736Google Scholar
  32. Sahin F and Miller SA (1998) Resistance in Capsicum pubescens to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria pepper race 6. Plant Disease 82: 794–799Google Scholar
  33. Sands DC (1990) Physiological criteria-determinative tests. In: Klement Z, Rudolph K and Sands D (eds) Methods in Phytobacteriology (pp 134-143) Akademiai Kiado, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  34. Sasser M (1990) Identification of bacteria through fatty acid analysis. In: Klement Z, Rudolph K and Sands D (eds) Methods in Phytobacteriology (pp 199-204) Akademiai Kiado, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  35. Stall RE, Beaulieu C, Egel D, Hodge NC, Leite RP, Minsavage GV, Bouzar H, Jones JB, Alvarez AM and Benedict AA (1994) Two genetically diverse groups of strains are included in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 1: 47–53Google Scholar
  36. Swords KMM, Dahlbeck D, Kearney B, Roy M and Staskawicz BJ (1996) Spontaneous and induced mutations in a single open reading frame to both virulence and avirulence in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria avrBs2. Journal of Bacteriology 178: 4661–4669Google Scholar
  37. Sutic D (1957) Tomato bacteriosis. Special Edition of Institute for Plant Protection, Belgrade 6: 1-65. English summary: Review of Applied Mycology 36: 734–735Google Scholar
  38. Vauterin L, Hoste B, Kersters K and Swings J (1995) Reclassification of Xanthomonas. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 3: 472–489Google Scholar
  39. Yang P, Vauterin L, Vancanneyt M, Swings J and Kersters K (1993) Application of fatty acid methyl esters for the taxonomic analysis of the genus Xanthomonas. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 16: 47–71Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aleksa Obradovic
    • 1
  • Athanassios Mavridis
    • 2
  • Klaus Rudolph
    • 2
  • Jaap D. Janse
    • 3
  • Momcilo Arsenijevic
    • 4
  • Jeffrey B. Jones
    • 5
  • Gerald V. Minsavage
    • 5
  • Jaw-Fen Wang
    • 6
  1. 1.Center for Pesticides and Environment ProtectionZemun, Serbia (Fax
  2. 2.Institute for Plant Pathology and Plant Protection, Grisebachstr. 6GöttingenGermany
  3. 3.Department of BacteriologyPlant Protection ServiceWageningenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Faculty of AgricultureNovi Sad, Serbia
  5. 5.Plant Pathology DepartmentUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  6. 6.Bacteriology Unit, AVRDCShanhua, TainanTaiwan

Personalised recommendations