European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 49–54

Case–control study on cancer risk associated to residence in the neighbourhood of a petrochemical plant

  • S. Belli
  • M. Benedetti
  • P. Comba
  • D. Lagravinese
  • V. Martucci
  • M. Martuzzi
  • D. Morleo
  • S. Trinca
  • G. Viviano
Article

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to investigate cancer mortality and residence in the neighbourhood of the petrochemical plant located in Brindisi, South-eastern Italy. Cases were all subjects resident in Brindisi and in three neighbouring municipalities who died in the study area in 1996–1997 from lung cancer, pleural neoplasm, bladder cancer and lymphohematopoietic malignancies. Controls were subjects resident in the same area and deceased in 1996–1997 for any cause except those listed for the cases. Next of kin's of all study subjects were visited by an interviewer who collected anamnestic information. The main residence of each subject, defined as the longest held residence with exclusion of the last 10 years, was reported on a digitalized map of the study area (MapInfo). The study included 144 cases and 176 controls; response rate was 98%. Residence within 2 km from the centre of the petrochemical plant was associated with a 3 fold increase of the Odds ratios (OR) for lung cancer, which did not reach statistical significance. Living close to the petrochemical plant was associated with moderate increases of OR for bladder cancer and lymphohematopoietic neoplasms which did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion the present study has shown moderate increases in risk for lung, bladder and lymphohematopoietic neoplasms in the population resident within 2 km from the centre of the petrochemical plant in Brindisi. These figures were confirmed after adjusting for smoking habit, occupation and school level. Random misclassification may have somehow resulted in risk underestimation.

Bladder cancer Environmental exposure Lung cancer Lymphohematopoietic neoplasms Petrochemical plants 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cohen AJ, Pope III CA. Lung cancer and air pollution. Environ Health Perspect 1995; 103(Suppl 8): S219-S224.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Katsouyanni K, Pershagen G. Ambient air pollution exposure and cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1997; 8: 284-291.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pershagen G, Lung cancer. In: Bertollini R, Lebowitz MD, Saracci R, Savitz D (eds), Environmental epidemiology, exposure and disease. Boca Raton: Lewis Publisher, 1993; 147-159.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Speizer FE, Samet J. Air pollution and lung cancer. In: Samet JM (ed), Epidemiology of lung cancer. New York, Basel, Hong Kong: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1994; 131-150.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pershagen G. Lung cancer mortality among men living near an arsenic emitting smelter. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122: 684-694.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xu ZY, Blot WJ, Li Xu G, et al. Environmental determination of lung cancer in Sheniang China. In: O'Neill IK, Chen J, Bartsch H (eds), 'Relevance to human cancer in N-Nitroso compounds, tobacco smoke and mycotoxins' IARC. Lyon: IARC Scientific Publications, 1991; 105: 460-465.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barbone F, Bovenzi M, Cavallieri F, Stanta G. Air pollution and lung cancer in Trieste. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 41: 1161-1169.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Minerba L, Scarpa B, Contu A. Studio di mortalitàtra i residenti in un'area ad elevato rischio di crisi ambientale. Ann Igiene 2001; 13: 339-350.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shear CL, Seale DB, Gottlieb MS. Evidence for spacetime clustering of lung cancer deaths. Arch Environ Health 1980; 35: 335-343.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jedrychowski W, Becher H, Waherendorf J, Basa-Cierpialek Z. A case-control study of lung cancer with special reference to air pollution in Poland. J Epidemiol Community Health 1989; 44: 114-120.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Morris Brown L, Pottern LM, Blot WJ. Lung cancer in relation to environmental pollutants emitted from industrial sources. Environ Res 1984; 34: 250-261.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vena JE. Air pollution as a risk factor in lung cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1982; 116: 42-56.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Magnani C, Agudo A, González CA, et al. Multicentric study on malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos. Br J Cancer 2000; 83; 104-111.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Linos A, Blair A, Gibson RW, et al. Leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and residential proximity to industrial plants. Arch Environ Health 1991; 46: 70-74.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shore DL, Sandler DP, Davey FR, McIntyre OR, Bloomfield CR. Acute leukemia and residential proximity to potential sources of environmental pollutants. Arch Environ Health 1993; 48: 414-420.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pan BJ, Hong YJ, Chang GC, et al. Excess cancer mortality among children and adolescents in residential districts polluted by petrochemical manufacturing plants in Taiwan. J Toxicol Environ Health 1994; 43: 117-129.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bruno C, Comba P, Maiozzi P, Vetrugno T. Accuracy of death certification of pleural mesothelioma in Italy. Eur J Epidemiol 1996; 12: 421-423.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ridgon RH. Problems in a statistical study of disease based on death certificates. South Medical J 1981; 74: 1104-1111.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Debanne SM, Petot GJ, Li J, et al. On the use of surrogate respondents for controls in a case-control study of Alzheimer's disease. J Am Ger Soc 2001; 49: 980-984.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Williams Pickle L, Morris Brown L, Blot WJ. Information available from surrogate respondents in case-control interview studies. Am J Epidemiol 1983; 118: 99-198.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Diggle P, Elliott P. Disease risk near point sources: Statistical issues for analyses using individual or spatially aggregated data. J Epidemiol Community Health 1995; 49(Suppl 2): S20-S27.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dolk H, Mertens B, Kleinschmidt I, Walls P, Shaddick G, Elliot PA. Standardisation approach to the control of socioeconomic confounding in small area studies of environment and health. J Epidemiol Community Health 1995; 49(Suppl 2): S9-S14.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Elliott P, Martuzzi M, Shaddick G. Spatial statistical methods in environmental epidemiology: A critique. Stat Meth Med Res 1995; 4: 137-159.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Belli
    • 1
  • M. Benedetti
    • 1
  • P. Comba
    • 1
  • D. Lagravinese
    • 2
  • V. Martucci
    • 2
  • M. Martuzzi
    • 3
  • D. Morleo
    • 2
  • S. Trinca
    • 1
  • G. Viviano
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto Superiore di SanitàRomeItaly
  2. 2.Local Health AuthorityBrindisiItaly
  3. 3.WHOEuropean Center for Environment and HealthRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations