European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 18, Issue 12, pp 1133–1142

Case–control study of environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease in Belgium

  • Philippe Pals
  • Bart Van Everbroeck
  • Bart Grubben
  • Maria Kristina Viaene
  • René Dom
  • Chris van der Linden
  • Patrick Santens
  • Jean Jacques Martin
  • Patrick Cras
Article

DOI: 10.1023/B:EJEP.0000006639.05690.92

Cite this article as:
Pals, P., Van Everbroeck, B., Grubben, B. et al. Eur J Epidemiol (2003) 18: 1133. doi:10.1023/B:EJEP.0000006639.05690.92

Abstract

The aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown and said to be multifactorial. We report on a retrospective epidemiological case control study, performed in Flanders during a 3-year period, investigating known and potential environmental risk factors for PD by means of questionnaires. We investigated 423 prevalent patients and 205 spouse-controls. We found familial occurrence in 15% of the patients, a mean age of onset of 58 years, and a clear male preponderance (male/female ratio 1.53). Our results suggest more nulliparity among female PD patients (95% CI: 1.08–5.76). We found a discrete clustering of patients in areas with intensive metallurgic activity. Patients were more frequently employed in metallurgy than controls (95% CI: 1.04–9.20). Furthermore, patients were clearly more exposed to zinc (95% CI: 1.51–90.90) and toluene (95% CI: 1.03–58.82). Male patients report more prostatectomy-surgery (95% CI: 1.54–17.24).

Diet Gender Organophosphates and comorbidity Pesticides Smoking 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philippe Pals
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bart Van Everbroeck
    • 1
  • Bart Grubben
    • 2
  • Maria Kristina Viaene
    • 3
  • René Dom
    • 2
  • Chris van der Linden
    • 4
  • Patrick Santens
    • 5
  • Jean Jacques Martin
    • 6
  • Patrick Cras
    • 1
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Laboratory of Neurobiology, Born Bunge FoundationUniversity of AntwerpWilrijkBelgium
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversity Hospital of AntwerpEdegemBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Occupational Medicine, Neurotoxicology SectionUniversity Hospital St. RaphaëlBelgium
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyAZ St. Lucas ZiekenhuisBelgium
  5. 5.Department of NeurologyGhent University HospitalGentBelgium
  6. 6.Laboratory of Neuropathology, Born Bunge FoundationUniversity of AntwerpWilrijkBelgium

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