Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 147–156 | Cite as

Quantification and Index of Non-Point Source Pollution in Taihu Lake Region with GIS

  • H.Y. Guo
  • X.R. Wang
  • J.G. Zhu


The contribution of phosphorus and nitrogen from non-point source pollution (NPS) in the Taihu Lake region was investigated through case study and surveying in the town of Xueyan, From experimental results coupled with survey and statistics in the studied area, the distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus input to the water body is achieved from four main sources: agricultural land, village, the town center and the poultry factory. The results showed that about 38% of total phosphorus (TP) and 48% of total nitrogen (TN) discharged is from agricultural land, 33% of TP and 40% TN from village residents, 25% of TP and 10% of TN from the town center and 4% of TP and 2% of TN from the poultry factory.

The Agricultural Non-point Pollution Potential Index (APPI) system for identifying and ranking critical areas of NPS was established with a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based technology. Quantification of the key factors in non-point sources pollution was carried out utilizing the following: Sediment Production Index (SPI), Runoff Index (RI), People and Animal Loading Index (PALI) and Chemical Use Index (CUI). These are the core parts of the model, and the weighting factor of each index was evaluated according the results of quantification. The model was successfully applied for evaluating APPI in Xueyan. Results from the model showed that the critical area identified for NPS control in Xueyan. The model has several advantages including: requiring fewer parameters, easy acquirement of these parameters, friendly interface, and convenience of operation. In addition it is especially useful for identifying critical areas of NPS when the basic data are not fully accessible, which is the present situation in China.

chemical use index non-point sources pollution people and animal loading index runoff index sediment production index 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References cited

  1. Carpenter SR, Caraco NF, Correll DL, Howarth RW, Sharpley AN, Smith VH. 1998 Non-point pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecol Appl 8, 559–568.Google Scholar
  2. Environmental Resources Research Institute, Evaluation of Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution In Pennsylvania Using a Geographic Information System, October 1991.Google Scholar
  3. Giupponi C, Rosato P. 1995 Simulating impacts of agricultural policy on nitrogen losses from a watershed in northern Italy. Environ Int 21(5), 577–582.Google Scholar
  4. Huang W, Shu J, Xu P. 2000 Contribution of phosphorus from launder powder in the catchment of Yili River in Taihu. Acta Ocean Lake 4, 20–25.Google Scholar
  5. Jiaoli. 1991 USLE and its use in the survey of non point source pollution of Xihu Lake. Environ Pollut Prevent 13(6), 5–8.Google Scholar
  6. Jin X et al. 1999 Study on the administration of the key polluted area in Taihu Lake. Res Environ Sci 12(5), 1–5.Google Scholar
  7. Lemunyon JL, Gillert. 1993 The concept and need for a phosphorus assessment tool. J Product Agric 6, 483–496.Google Scholar
  8. Ma L. 1992 Pollution from agricultural non-point sources and its control in river system of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu. Chin J Appl Ecol 3(4), 346–354.Google Scholar
  9. Nation Group for Lake and Reservoir Eutrophication Survey, Criterion of Lake Eutrophication Survey, Beijing, China: Environment Science Press of China, 1987.Google Scholar
  10. National Environmental Bureau. 1989 Methods for the Analysis of Water and Waste Water. Beijing: Chinese Environmental Science Press.Google Scholar
  11. Ruochuan G, Mei D. 1998 Water quality modeling in the watershed-based approach for waste load allocations. Water Sci Tech 38(10), 165–172.Google Scholar
  12. Sharpley AN, Rekolainen S. 1997 Phosphorus in agriculture and its environmental implications. In Tunney H, Carton OT, Brookers PC, Johnston AE, eds. Phosphorus Loss from Soil to Water. Cambridge, England: CAB International Press; 1–54.Google Scholar
  13. Viessman W Jr, Hammer MJ. 1993 Waterbody Supply and Pollution Control. New York: Harper Colins College Publications, pp. 876Google Scholar
  14. Wan X, Qiu D, Zhao X. 2001 The feature of large scale poultry farm in Taihu Lake region. Agric Environ Develop 2, 35–38.Google Scholar
  15. Zhang D, Zhang X, Zhang J et al. 1997 Survey of non-point sources pollution in the skirts of Shanghai. Acta Agric Shanghai 13(1), 67–73.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • H.Y. Guo
    • 1
    • 2
  • X.R. Wang
    • 3
  • J.G. Zhu
    • 4
  1. 1.School of the EnvironmentNanjing UniversityChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture (Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences)NanjingChina
  3. 3.School of the EnvironmentNanjing UniversityChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture (Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences)China

Personalised recommendations