Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 91–120 | Cite as

Gender and Orientations Toward the Future: Links to Motivation



Literature on future orientation and motivation was examined for gender differences. Research revealed gender differences from five theoretical orientations: achievement motivation, future time orientation, possible selves, expectancy-value, and social-cognitive. Some of those differences seemed best explained in terms of generational differences in gender role expectations. Gender differences were found in extension and density of future goals. Men had further extension but fewer goals than women. Evidence suggested that women's future expectations have become more similar to men's in the career realm, although women also have maintained their focus on interpersonal goals. An implication is that schools are a potentially powerful sociocultural context that can encourage students to envision futures that are not constrained by gender, race/ethnicity, or other stereotypes.

achievement motivation gender future time orientation motivation and sociocultural contexts 


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© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of OklahomaNorman

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