Sex-Specific Territorial Behaviour in the Banggai Cardinalfish, Pterapogon kaunderni
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In a field experiment, we studied how levels of aggression in males and females in established pairs of the Banggai cardinalfish were influenced by the sex of an experimentally introduced individual larger and more attractive than its resident counterpart. Contrary to previous studies on other cardinalfish species, and contrary to expectations in a sex role reversed species, the male was the main aggressor towards an intruder. Moreover, residents were more aggressive towards an intruder of the same sex as themselves. Furthermore, even though females often courted introduced, larger males, no intruder managed to take over the partnership of any resident. We suggest that our findings imply relatively equal sex roles in the Banggai cardinalfish and we discuss the evolution of sex specific territory defence and its significance in the Banggai cardinalfish as well as the implications of such behaviour in the interpretations of sex roles in general.
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