Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 69, Issue 1–4, pp 63–79 | Cite as

Microsatellite DNA Data Indicate Distinct Native Populations of Kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka, Persist in the Lake Sammamish Basin, Washington

  • Sewall F. Young
  • Mark R. Downen
  • James B. Shaklee


Large-scale introductions of resident and anadromous salmonids from exogenous sources and urbanization have led to major changes in, and concern for the fate of, indigenous fish populations of the Lake Sammamish/Lake Washington Basin. Specifically, introductions of kokanee (the resident form of Oncorhynchus nerka) from the Lake Whatcom Hatchery and sockeye (the anadromous form of O. nerka) from Baker Lake have caused uncertainty about the ancestry of the kokanee that currently spawn in the basin. We used nine microsatellite loci to investigate the inter-relationships of kokanee populations that spawn in streams in the Sammamish sub-basin, sockeye salmon populations that share spawning areas with the kokanee, Lake Whatcom Hatchery kokanee and Baker Lake sockeye, and an outgroup, Meadow Creek kokanee, from Lake Kootenay which drains into the upper Columbia River. We observed high levels of genetic variation (5–49 alleles per locus). Explicit tests of population sub-division revealed that collections from most spawning aggregations differed from each other. Observed allele frequency distributions strongly suggest that natural spawning kokanee in the basin are not descended from recent Lake Whatcom stock introductions. We found no compelling evidence to suggest that the kokanee sampled from spawning areas within the Lake Sammamish sub-basin have resulted from, or been altered substantially by, past introductions of non-native kokanee or sockeye.

genetics hatchery introductions divergence 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Banks, M.A., M.S. Blouin, B.A. Baldwin, V.K. Rashbrook, H.A. Fitzgerald, S.M. Blankenship & D. Hedgecock. 1999. Isolation and inheritance of novel microsatellites in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). J. Hered. 90: 281–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banks, M.A., V.K. Rashbrook, M.J. Calavetta, C.A. Dean & D. Hedgecock. 2000. Analysis of microsatellite DNA resolves genetic structure and diversity of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California's central valley. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57: 915–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beacham, T.D., S. Pollard & K.D. Lee. 1999. Population structure and stock identification of steelhead in southern British Columbia, Washington, and the Columbia River based on microsatellite DNA variation. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 128: 1068–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beacham, T.D. & C.C.Wood. 1999. Application of microsatellite DNA variation to estimation of stock composition and escapement of Nass River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: 297–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Foote, C.J., C.C. Wood & R.E. Withler. 1989. Biochemical comparison of sockeye salmon and kokanee, the anadromous and nonanadromous forms of Oncorhynchus nerka. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46: 149–158.Google Scholar
  6. Goudet, J. 1995. FSTAT (ver. 1.2): A computer program to calculate F-statistics. J. Hered. 86: 485–486.Google Scholar
  7. Goudet, J., M. Raymond, T. de Meëus & F. Rousset. 1996. Testing differentiation in diploid populations. Genetics 144: 1933–1940.Google Scholar
  8. Gustafson, R.G., T.C. Wainwright, G.A. Winans, F.W. Waknitz, L.T. Parker & R.S. Waples. 1997. Status review of sockeye salmon from Washington and Oregon. NOAA technical memorandum NMFS-NWDSC-33. 282 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Hendry, A.P. 1995. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Lake Washington: An investigation of ancestral origins, population differentiation and local adaptation. MS thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. 159 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Hendry, A.P., T.P. Quinn & F.M. Utter. 1996. Genetic evidence for the persistence and divergence of native and introduced sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) within Lake Washington, Washington. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53: 823–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Karhu, A., J.-H. Dieterich & O. Savolainen. 2000. Rapid expansion of microsatellite sequences in pines. Mol. Biol. Evol. 17: 259–265.Google Scholar
  12. Olsen, J.B., J.K. Wenburg & P. Bentzen. 1996. Semiautomated multilocus genotyping of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) using microsatellites. Mol. Mar. Biol. Technol. 5: 259–272.Google Scholar
  13. Olsen, J.B., S.L. Wilson, E.J. Kretschmer, K.C. Jones & J.E. Seeb. 2000a. Characterization of 14 tetranucleotide microsatellite loci derived from sockeye salmon. Mol. Ecol. 9: 2185–2187.Google Scholar
  14. Olsen, J.B., P. Bentzen, M.A. Banks, J.B. Shaklee & S. Young. 2000b. Microsatellites reveal population identity of individual pink salmon to allow supportive breeding of a population at risk of extinction. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 129: 232–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Small, M.P., T.D. Beacham, R.E. Withler & R.J. Nelson. 1998. Discriminating coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) populations within the Fraser River, British Columbia. Mol. Ecol. 7: 141–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Taylor, E.B., C.J. Foote & C.C. Wood. 1996. Molecular genetic evidence for parallel life-history evolution within a Pacific salmon (sockeye salmon and kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka). Evolution 50: 401–416.Google Scholar
  17. Weir, B.S. 1996. Genetic Data Analysis II. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, MA. 445 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Winans, G.A., P.B. Aebersold & R.S. Waples. 1996. Allozyme variability of Oncorhynchus nerka in the Pacific Northwest, with special consideration to populations of Redfish Lake, Idaho. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 125: 645–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wood, C.C. & C.J. Foote. 1996. Evidence for sympatric genetic divergence of anadromous and nonanadromous morphs of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Evolution 50: 1265–1279.Google Scholar
  20. Wood, C.C., B.E. Riddell, D.T. Rutherford & R.W. Withler. 1994. Biochemical genetic survey of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Canada. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51(Suppl 1): 114–131.Google Scholar
  21. Wright, J.M. & P. Bentzen. 1994. Microsatellites: Genetic markers for the future. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 4: 384–388.Google Scholar
  22. Young, S.F., J.G. McLellan & J.B. Shaklee. 2004. Genetic integrity and microgeographic population structure of westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, in the Pend Oreille Basin in Washington. Environ. Biol. Fish. 69: 127–142.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sewall F. Young
    • 1
  • Mark R. Downen
    • 2
  • James B. Shaklee
    • 1
  1. 1.Washington Department of Fish and WildlifeOlympiaU.S.A.
  2. 2.Washington Department of Fish and WildlifeLa ConnerU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations