Child Psychiatry and Human Development

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 317–328 | Cite as

Strengths and Difficulties as Correlates of Attachment Style in Institutionalized and Non-Institutionalized Children with Below-Average Intellectual Abilities

Article

Abstract

The current study examined attachment style, strengths, and difficulties in institutionalized and non-institutionalized children with below-average intellectual abilities. Parents/caregivers and teachers of the children completed a brief measure of attachment style and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which assesses the most important domains of child psychopathology (i.e., emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity-inattention, and peer problems) as well as personal strengths (i.e., prosocial behavior). Results indicated that institutionalized children were more frequently insecurely attached and generally displayed higher levels of difficulties and lower levels of strengths than non-institutionalized children. Furthermore, within both groups of children, insecure attachment status was linked to higher levels of difficulties but lower levels of strengths.

attachment strengths and difficulties intellectually impaired children 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Bowlby J: Attachment and loss: Volume 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cole M, Cole SR: The development of children. New York: Freeman, 1996.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Warren SL, Huston L, Egeland B, Sroufe LA: Child and adolescent anxiety disorders and early attachment. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:637–644, 1997.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burge D, Hammen C, Davila J, Daley SE: The relationship between attachment cognitions and psychological adjustment in late adolescent women. Development Psychopathol 9:151–167, 1997.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Renken B, Egeland B, Marvinney D, Mangelsdorf S, Sroufe LA: Early childhood antecedents of aggression and passive withdrawal in early elementary school. J Pers 5:257–281, 1989.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carlson EA, Sroufe LA: Contributions of attachment theory to developmental psychopathology. In Developmental psychopathology, Vol. 1, eds. Cicchetti D, Cohen DL, New York: Wiley, 1995.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greenberg MT: Attachment and psychopathology in childhood. In Handbook of attachment. Theory, research, and clinical applications, eds. Cassidy J, Shaver PR, New York: Guilford Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ainsworth MDS, Blehar MC, Waters E, Wall S: Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1978.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crowell JA, Fraley RC, Shaver, PR: Measurement of individual differences in adolescent and adult attachment. In Handbook of attachment. Theory, research, and clinical applications, eds. Cassidy J, Shaver PR, New York: Guilford Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hazan C, Shaver P: Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. J Pers Soc Psychol 52:511–524, 1987.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Muris P, Meesters C: Attachment Questionnaire for Children. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Maastricht University, Department of Medical Clinical and Experimental Psychology, 1999.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Armsden GC, Greenberg MT: The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. J Youth Adolesc 16:427–454, 1987.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Muris P, Meesters C, Van Melick M, Zwambag L: Self-reported attachment style, attachment quality, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adolescents. Pers Individ Diff 30:809–818, 2001.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Muris P, Mayer B, Meesters C: Self-reported attachment style, anxiety, and depression in children. Soc Behav Pers 28:157–162, 2000.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Muris P, Meesters C: Attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety disorders symptoms in normal adolescents. J Psychopathol Behav Assessm 24:97–106, 2002.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Muris P, Meesters C, Merckelbach H, Hülsenbeck P: Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behav Res Ther38:487–497, 2000.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Muris P, Meesters C, Van den Berg S: Internalizing and externalizing problems as correlates of self-reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing in normal adolescents. J Child Fam Studies 12:171–183, 2003.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goodman R: Psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:1337–1345, 2001.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Waters E, Merrick S, Treboux D, Crowell J, Albersheim L: Attachment security in infancy and early adulthood: a twenty-year longitudinal study. Child Dev 71:684–689, 2000.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goodman R (1999) The extended version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a guide to child psychiatric caseness and consequent burden. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40:791–799, 1999.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Achenbach TM: Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist 4–18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, 1991.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Muris P, Meesters, Van de Berg F: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): further evidence for its reliability and validity in a community sample of Dutch children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 12:1–8, 2003.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Achenbach TM, McConaughy SH, Howell CT: Child/adolescent behavioural and emotional problems: implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychol Bull 101:213–232, 1987.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical, Clinical, and Experimental PsychologyMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.The Netherlands

Personalised recommendations