Maternal Dietary Risk Factors in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (United States)
- 276 Downloads
Objective: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer, and the second most common cause of mortality in children aged 1–14 years. Recent research has established that the disease can originate in utero, and thus maternal diet may be an important risk factor for ALL.
Methods: The Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study is a population-based case–control study of risk factors for childhood leukemia, including maternal diet. Cases (n = 138) and controls (n = 138) were matched on sex, date of birth, mother's race, Hispanicity, and county of residence at birth. Maternal dietary intake in the 12months prior to pregnancy was obtained by a 76-item food frequency questionnaire.
Results: Consumption of the vegetables (OR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33–0.85; p= 0.008), protein sources (OR = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18–0.90, p= 0.03), and fruits (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.49–1.04; p= 0.08) food groups were inversely associated with ALL. Among nutrients, consumption of provitamin A carotenoids (OR = 0.65, 95% CI, 0.42–1.01; p= 0.05), and the antioxidant glutathione (OR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.16–1.10; p= 0.08) were inversely associated with ALL.
Conclusion: Maternal dietary factors, specifically the consumption of vegetables, fruits, protein sources and related nutrients, may play a role in the etiology of ALL. Dietary carotenoids and glutathione appear to be important contributors to this effect.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Ries LAG (1999) Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents: United States SEER program 1975-1995. SEER Pediatric monograph. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute.Google Scholar
- 6.Sarasua S, Savitz DA (1994) Cured and broiled meat consumption in relation to childhood cancer: Denver, Colorado (United States). Cancer Caises Control 5: 141–148.Google Scholar
- 7.Peters JM, Preston-Martin S, London SJ, Bowman JD, Buckley JD, Thomas DC (1994) Processed meats and risk of childhood leukemia (California, USA). Cancer Caises Control 5: 195–202.Google Scholar
- 8.Ross JA, Potter JD, Reaman GH, Pendergrass TW, Robison LL (1996) Maternal exposure to potential inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase II and infant leukemia (United States): a report from the children's cancer group. Cancer Caises Control 7: 581–590.Google Scholar
- 11.Ivankovic S, Preussmann R, Schmahl D, Zweller JW (1974) Prevention by ascorbic acid of in vivo formation of N-nitroso compounds. In: Bogovski P, Walker E,eds. N-nitroso Compounds in the Environment. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp. 101–102.Google Scholar
- 14.Block Dietary Data Systems, uwww.nutritionquest.com, 2003.Google Scholar
- 15.United States Department of Health and Human Services and National Center for Health Statistics (1998) Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, NHANES III (CDROM Series 11, No. 2A). Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
- 16.Anonymous (1991) The Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nutr Rev 49: 156–158.Google Scholar
- 18.Block G, Mandel R, Gold E. Contribution of open-ended and ethnic foods to nutrient estimates from a food frequency questionnaire.Epidemiology (in press).Google Scholar
- 23.Breslow NE, Day NE (1980). Statistical Methods in Cancer Research. Volume 1-The analysis of case-control studies. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
- 24.The Food Guide Pyramid (1992) Home and Garden Bulletin 252.Beltsville, MD: US Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
- 25.Steinmetz KA, Potter JD (1991) Vegetables, fruit, and cancer. I.Epidemiology. Cancer Caises Control 2: 325–357.Google Scholar
- 27.World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (1997) Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research.Google Scholar
- 28.Smith-Warner SA, Giovannucci E (1999) Fruit and vegetable intake and cancer. In: Heber D, Blackburn GL, Go VLW, eds.Nutritional Oncology. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 153–193.Google Scholar
- 35.Meister A (1995) Strategies for increasing cellular glutathione. In: Packer L, Cadenas E, eds. Biothiols in Health and Disease. New York: Marcel Dekker, pp. 165–189.Google Scholar
- 36.Jones DP (1995) Glutathione distribution in natural products: absorption and tissue distribution. In: Packer L, ed. Biothiols. Part B. Glutathione and Thioredoxin: Thiols in Signal Transduction and Gene Regulation. New York: Academic Press, pp. 3–12.Google Scholar
- 39.Uddin S, Choudhry MA (1995) Quercetin, a bioflavonoid, inhibits the DNA synthesis of human leukemia cells. Biochem Mol Biol Internatl 36: 545–550.Google Scholar
- 42.Foerster SB, Wu S, Gregson J, Hudes M, Fierro MP (1999) California Dietary Practices Survey: Overall Trends in Healthy Eating Among Adults, 1989-1997. A Call to Action, Part 2.Sacramento, CA: California Department of Health Services.Google Scholar
- 43.Patterson BH, Block G (1998) Food choices and the cancer guidelines. Am J Public Health 78: 282–286.Google Scholar