Smoking and Cancer Risk in Korean Men and Women
- 676 Downloads
Objective: In Korea, male smoking prevalence is among the world's highest, and mortality rates from smoking-caused cancers, particularly lung cancer, are escalating. This cohort study examined the effects of cigarette smoking on the risk of cancer mortality and incidence, and characterized the relationship of cancer risk with the amount and duration of cigarette smoking.
Method: A nine-year prospective cohort study was carried out on 1,212,906 Koreans, 30–95 years of age. The study population includes participants in a national insurance program, who completed a questionnaire on smoking and other risk factors. The main outcome measures were death from cancer and cancer incidence, obtained through record linkage. At baseline, 472,970 men (57.0%) and 20,548 (5.4%) women were current cigarette smokers.
Results: In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for age, current smoking among men increased the risks of mortality for cancer of the lung (relative risk (RR), 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.0–5.3) and other cancers, including larynx, bile duct, esophagus, liver, stomach, pancreas, bladder, and also leukemia. Current smoking among women increased the risk of lung cancer mortality (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 2.0–3.1). Similar results were found for incidence among men and women.
Conclusion: In Korea, smoking is an independent risk factor for a number of major cancers. The findings affirm the need for aggressive tobacco control in Korea in order to minimize the epidemic of smoking-caused disease.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Gallup Korea (2001) Survey on the smoking prevalence. The Korea Gallup Report.Google Scholar
- 2.Corrao MA, Guindon GE, Sharma N, Shokoohi DF (2000) Tobacco Control Country Profiles. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.Google Scholar
- 4.National Statistical Office (2000) Annual report on the cause of death statistics. Republic of Korea.Google Scholar
- 5.US Department of Health Education and Welfare (1964) Smoking and health. Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General. DHEW Publication No. [PHS] 1103. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- 6.US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), Public Health Service, National Cancer Institute (1997) Changes in cigarette-related disease risks and their implication for prevention and control. Burns DM, Garfinkel L, and Samet, JM. . Bethesda, Maryland, US Government Printing Office (NIH Publication No. 97-4213). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph.Google Scholar
- 8.Doll R, Peto R, Wheatley K, Gray R, Sutherland I (1994) Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors. Br Med J 309: 901–911.Google Scholar
- 9.Choi SY, Kahyo H, Shim YS (1992) Effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking on risk of cancers. Korean J Epidemiol 14: 35–53.Google Scholar
- 12.Liu B-Q, Peto R, Chen Z-M, et al. (1998) Emerging tobacco hazards in China: 1. Retrospective proportional mortality study of one million deaths. Br Med J 317: 1411–1422.Google Scholar
- 13.Niu S-R, Yang G-H, Chen Z-M, et al. (1998) Emerging tobacco hazards in China: 2. Early mortality results from a prospective study. Br Med J 317: 1423–1424.Google Scholar
- 18.Lam TH, Ho SY, Hedley AJ, Mak KH, Peto R (2001) Mortality and smoking in Hong Kong: case-control study of all adult deaths in 1998. Br Med J 323: 361–¦.Google Scholar
- 22.Levin ML (1953) The occurrence of lung cancer in man. Acta Un Intern Cancer 9: 531–541.Google Scholar
- 23.National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2003) Smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity and economic costs (SAMMEC). CDC. http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/sammec/.Google Scholar
- 24.International Agency for Research on Cancer (2002). Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. IARC Monograph 83. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
- 25.US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) (1989) Reducing the health consequences of smoking. 25 years of progress. A report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- 27.Korean Association of Smoking and Health (1991) Surveys on the smoking habits in Korea, 1980, 1985, and 1990. Smoking and Health 42: 6–7.Google Scholar