Advertisement

Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 14, Issue 10, pp 945–952 | Cite as

Survival from oral cancer in Mumbai (Bombay), India

  • Balakrishna B. Yeole
  • Agnihotram V. Ramanakumar
  • R. Sankaranarayanan
Article

Abstract

Objective: Cancer survival information is available for only few populations in developing countries. Data on survival of oral cancer patients registered by the Bombay population-based cancer registry, India, during 1992–1994 is presented in this paper. Methods: Vital status of the patients was established by matching against death certificates, reply paid postal enquiries, telephone enquiries, scrutiny of hospital records and house visits. Of the 1808 eligible cases for analysis, 1204 (66.6%) were dead; and 604 (33.4%) were alive at last follow-up, of whom 136 were lost to follow-up during the first 5-years after diagnosis. Observed and relative survival rates are presented and hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazard model. Results: The overall 5-year observed and relative survival rates were 30.5% and 39.7%, respectively. Survival steadily declined with advancing age and advanced clinical stages. Five-year observed survival was 59.1% for localised cancer, 15.7% for cancers with regional extension and 1.6% for those with distant metastasis. Those with tongue, buccal mucosa and retromolar trigone cancers had poor survival rates. Conclusions: Our study shows that detecting oral cancer in early stages, when these are amenable to single modality therapies, offers the best chance of long-term survival. However, primary prevention by tobacco/alcohol control measures is important in the long-term perspective.

buccal mucosa oral cancer survival tongue treatment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Parkin DM,Whelan SL,Young Jr. J.,Raymond L (1997) Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. VII. IARC Scientific Publications No. 143. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ferlay J,Parkin DM,Pisani P (1998) GLOBOCAN Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide. IARC Cancer Base 3 (on CD-ROM). Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hakulinen T (1982) Cancer survival corrected for heterogeneity in patient withdrawal. Biometrics 38: 933-942.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hakulinen T,Gibberd R,Abeywickrama KH,Soderman B (1998) A computer program package for cancer survival studies, version 2.0. (Computer program). Tampere: Finnish Cancer Registry/ University of Tasmania, Australia.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Annual Report of the Executive Health Officer of the Municipal Corporation of Bombay of the year 1989 Bombay: Bombay Municipal Corporation, 1990.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Black RJ,Bashir S (1998) World standard cancer populations: a resource for comparative analysis of survival data. In: Sankaranarayanan R,Black RJ,Parkin DM eds. Cancer Survival in Developing Countries. IARC Scientific Publication No. 145. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp. 9-12.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cox DR Regression Models and Life Tables (1972) J R Statist Soc (B) 34: 187-280.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Miller BA,Ries LAG,Hankey BF,Kosary CL,Harras A,Devesa SS (1993) SEER Cancer Statistics, Review: 1973-1990. NIH Pub. No. 93-2789, Bethesda: MD: National Cancer Institute.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Swango PA (1996) Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx in the United States: an epidemiologic overview. J Public Health Dent 56: 309-318.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ries LAG,Kosary CL,Hankey BF,Miller BA,Harras A,Edwards BK (eds) (1997) SEER Cancer Statistics, Review: 1973-1994. NIH Pub. No. 97-2789, Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shiboski CH,Shiboski SC,Silverman Jr S. (2000) Trends in oral cancer rates in the United States, 1973-1996. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 28: 249-256.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Winn DM,Blot WJ (1985) Second cancer following cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx in Connecticut, 1935-1982. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 68: 25-48.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    De Vries N,Van der Waal I,Snow GB (1986) Multiple primary tumours in oral cancer. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 15: 85-87.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lippman SM,Hong WK (1992) Retinoid chemoprevention of upper aerodigestive tract carcinogenesis. In: DeVita VT,Hellman S,Rosenberg SA eds. Important Advances in Oncology. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, pp. 93-109.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McDonald S,Haie C,Rubin P,Nelson D,Divers LD (1989) Second malignant tumors in patients with laryngeal carcinoma: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 17: 457-465.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sankaranarayanan R,Black RJ,Parkin DM (1998) Cancer Survival in Developing Countries. IARC Scientific Publication No. 145. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vatanasapt V,Sriamporn S,Kamsaard S et al. (1998) Cancer survival in Khon Kaen, Thailand. In: Sankaranarayanan R,Black RJ,Parkin DM, eds. Cancer Survival in Developing Countries. IARC Scientific Publication No. 145. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp. 123-134.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martin N,Srisukho Songphol,Kunpradist O,Suttajit Maitree (1998) Cancer survival in Chiang Mai, Thailand. In: Sankaranarayanan R,Black RJ andParkin DM, eds. Cancer Survival in Developing Countries. IARC Scientific Publication No. 145. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp. 123-134.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Berrino F,Sant M,Verdecchia A,Capocaccia R,Hakulinen T,Esteve J eds. (1995) Survival of Cancer Patients in Europe. The EUROCARE study. IARC Scientific publications No. 132. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (www.seer.cancer.gov) SEER* Stat Database: Incidence-SEER 9 Regs, Nov 2002 Sub (1973-1999), National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch, released March 2002, based on November 2001 submission.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Balakrishna B. Yeole
    • 1
  • Agnihotram V. Ramanakumar
    • 2
  • R. Sankaranarayanan
    • 3
  1. 1.Bombay Cancer RegistryIndian Cancer SocietyMumbai (Bombay)India
  2. 2.International Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance
  3. 3.Unit of Descriptive EpidemiologyInternational Agency for Research on CancerLyon Cedex 08France

Personalised recommendations