Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 53, Issue 1–2, pp 51–71 | Cite as

Corporate Social Responsibility Theories: Mapping the Territory

  • Elisabet Garriga
  • Domènec Melé

Abstract

The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) field presents not only a landscape of theories but also a proliferation of approaches, which are controversial, complex and unclear. This article tries to clarify the situation, “mapping the territory” by classifying the main CSR theories and related approaches in four groups: (1) instrumental theories, in which the corporation is seen as only an instrument for wealth creation, and its social activities are only a means to achieve economic results; (2) political theories, which concern themselves with the power of corporations in society and a responsible use of this power in the political arena; (3) integrative theories, in which the corporation is focused on the satisfaction of social demands; and (4) ethical theories, based on ethical responsibilities of corporations to society. In practice, each CSR theory presents four dimensions related to profits, political performance, social demands and ethical values. The findings suggest the necessity to develop a new theory on the business and society relationship, which should integrate these four dimensions.

corporate social responsibility corporate responsiveness corporate citizenship stakeholder manage ment corporate social performance issues management sustainable development the common good 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackerman, R. W.: 1973, ‘How Companies Respond to SocialDemands’, Harvard University Review 51(4), 88–98.Google Scholar
  2. Ackerman, R. and R. Bauer: 1976, Corporate Social Responsiveness (Reston, Virginia).Google Scholar
  3. Agle, B. R. and R. K. Mitchell: 1999, ‘Who Matters to CEOs? An Investigation of Stakeholder Attributes and Salience, Corporate Performance and CEO Values’, Academy of Management Journal 42(5), 507–526.Google Scholar
  4. Alford, H. and M. Naugthon: 2002, ‘Beyond the Shareholder Model of the Firm: Working toward the Common Good of a Business’, in S. A. Cortright and M. Naugthon (eds.), Rethinking the Purpose of Business. Interdisciplinary Essays from the Catholic Social Tradition (Notre Dame University Press, Notre Dame), pp. 27–47.Google Scholar
  5. Altman, B. W.: 1998, ‘Corporate Community Relations in the 1990s: A Study in Transformation’, Business and Society 37(2), 221–228.Google Scholar
  6. Altman, B. W. and D. Vidaver-Cohen: 2000, ‘Corporate Citizenship in the New Millennium: Foundation for an Architecture of Excellence’ Business and Society Review 105(1), 145–169.Google Scholar
  7. Andriof, J. and M. McIntosh (eds.): 2001, Perspectives on Corporate Citizenship (Greenleaf, Sheffield, UK).Google Scholar
  8. Andrioff, J.: 2001, ‘Patterns of Stakeholder Partnerhsip Building’, in J. Andriof and M. McIntosh, (eds.) Perspectives on Corporate Citizenship (Greenleaf, Sheffield, UK), pp. 200–213.Google Scholar
  9. Argandoña, A.: 1998, ‘The Stakeholder Theory and the Common Good’, Journal of Business Ethics 17, 1093–1102.Google Scholar
  10. Barney, J.: 1991, ‘Firm Resource and Sustained Competitive Advantage’, Journal of Management 17, 99–120.Google Scholar
  11. Bendheim, C. L., S. A. Waddock and S. B. Graves: 1998, ‘Determining Best Practice in Corporate-Stakeholder Relations Using Data Envelopment Analysis’, Business and Society 37(3), 306–339.Google Scholar
  12. Berman, S. L., A. C. Wicks, S. Kotha and T. M. Jones: 1999, ‘Does Stakeholder Orientation Matter? The Relationship between Stakeholder Management Models and the Firm Financial Performance’, Academy of Management Journal 42(5), 488–509.Google Scholar
  13. Bowen, H. R.: 1953, Social Responsibilities of the Businessman (Harper & Row, New York).Google Scholar
  14. Bowie, N.: 1991, ‘New Directions in Corporate Social Responsibility’, Business Horizons 34(4), 56–66.Google Scholar
  15. Bowie, N.: 1998, ‘A Kantian Theory of Capitalism’, Business Ethics Quarterly, Ruffin Series, Special Issue, No. 1, 37–60.Google Scholar
  16. Brandy, F. N.: 1990, Ethical Managing: Rules and Results (Macmillan, London).Google Scholar
  17. Brewer, T. L.: 1992, ‘An Issue Area Approach to the Analysis of MNE-Government Relations’, Journal of International Business Studies 23, 295–309.Google Scholar
  18. Brummer, J.: 1991, Corporate Responsibility and Legitimacy (Greenwood Press, New York).Google Scholar
  19. Burke, L. and J. M. Logsdon: 1996, ‘How Corporate Social Responsibility Pays Off’, Long Range Planning 29(4), 495–503.Google Scholar
  20. Burton, B. K. and C. P. Dunn: 1996, ‘Feminist Ethics as Moral Grounding for Stakeholder Theory’, Business Ethics Quarterly 6(2), 133–147.Google Scholar
  21. Carey, J. B.: 2001, ‘The Common Good in Catholic Social Thought’, St. John's Law Review 75(2), 311–313.Google Scholar
  22. Carroll, A. B.: 1979, ‘A Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance’, Academy of Management Review 4(4), 497–505.Google Scholar
  23. Carroll, A. B.: 1991, ‘The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Towards the Moral Management of Organizational Stakeholders’, Business Horizons (July/August), 39–48.Google Scholar
  24. Carroll, A. B.: 1994, ‘Social Issues in Management Research’, Business and Society 33(1), 5–25.Google Scholar
  25. Carroll, A. B.: 1999, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility. Evolution of Definitional Construct’, Business and Society 38(3), 268–295.Google Scholar
  26. Carroll, A. B. and A. K. Buchholtz: 2002, Business and Society with Infotrac: Ethics and Stakeholder Management, 5th ed. (South-Western, Cincinnati).Google Scholar
  27. Cassel, D.: 2001, ‘Human Rights Business Responsibilities in the Global Marketplace’, Business Ethics Quarterly 11(2), 261–274.Google Scholar
  28. Christensen, C., T. Craig and S. Hart: 2001, ‘The Great Disruption’, Foreign Affairs 80(2), 80–96.Google Scholar
  29. Christensen, C. M. and M. Overdorf: 2000, ‘Meeting the Challenge of Disruptive Change’, Harvard Business Review 78(2), 66–75.Google Scholar
  30. Davis, K.: 1960, ‘Can Business Afford to Ignore Corporate Social Responsibilities?’, California Management Review 2, 70–76.Google Scholar
  31. Davis, K.: 1967, ‘Understanding The Social Responsibility Puzzle’, Business Horizons 10(4), 45–51.Google Scholar
  32. Davis, K.: 1973, ‘The Case For and Against Business Assumption of Social Responsibilities’, Academy of Management Journal 16, 312–322.Google Scholar
  33. Dion, M.: 2001, ‘Corporate Citizenship and Ethics of Care: Corporate Values, Codes of Ethics and Global Governance’, in J. Andriof and M. McIntosh (ed.), Perspectives on Corporate Citizenship (Greenleaf, Sheffield, UK), pp. 118–138.Google Scholar
  34. Donaldson, T.: 1982, Corporations and Morality (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliff, NJ).Google Scholar
  35. Donaldson, T. and T. W. Dunfee: 1994, ‘Towards a Unified Conception of Business Ethics: Integrative Social Contracts Theory’, Academy of Management Review 19, 252–284.Google Scholar
  36. Donaldson, T. and T. W. Dunfee: 1999, Ties That Bind: A Social Contracts Approach to Business Ethics (Harvard Business School Press, Boston).Google Scholar
  37. Donaldson, T. and T. W. Dunfee: 2000, ‘Prècis for Ties that Bind’, Business and Society 105(Winter), 436–444.Google Scholar
  38. Donaldson, T. and L. E. Preston: 1995, ‘The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications’, Academy of Management Review 20(1), 65–91.Google Scholar
  39. Donati, P.: 1991, Teoria relazionale della società (Franco Agnelli, Milano).Google Scholar
  40. Donnelly, J.: 1985, The Concept of Human Rights (Croom Helm, London).Google Scholar
  41. Emshoff, J. R. and R. E. Freeman: 1978, ‘Stakeholder Management’, Working Paper from theWharton Applied Research Center (July). Quoted by Sturdivant (1979).Google Scholar
  42. Etzioni, A.: 1988, The Moral Dimension. Towards a New Economics (The Free Press, New York).Google Scholar
  43. Evan, W. M. and R. E. Freeman: 1988, ‘A Stakeholder Theory of the Modern Corporation: Kantian Capitalism’, in T. Beauchamp and N. Bowie (eds.), Ethical Theory and Business (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs), pp. 75–93.Google Scholar
  44. Fort, T. L.: 1996, ‘Business as Mediating Institutions’, Business Ethics Quarterly 6(2), 149–164.Google Scholar
  45. Fort, T. L.: 1999, ‘The First Man and the Company Man: The Common Good, Transcendence, and Mediating Institutions’, American Business Law Journal 36(3), 391–435.Google Scholar
  46. Frederick, W. C.: 1987, ‘Theories of Corporate Social Performance’, in S. P. Sethi and C. M. Flabe (ed.), Business and Society: Dimensions of Conflict and Cooperation (Lexington Books, New York), pp. 142–161.Google Scholar
  47. Frederick, W. C.: 1992, ‘Anchoring Values in Nature: Towards a Theory of Business Values’, Business Ethics Quarterly 2(3), 283–304.Google Scholar
  48. Frederick, W. C.: 1998, ‘Moving to CSR4’, Business and Society 37(1), 40–60.Google Scholar
  49. Freeman, R. E.: 1984, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach (Pitman, Boston).Google Scholar
  50. Freeman, R. E.: 1994, ‘The Politics of Stakeholder Theory: Some Future Directions’, Business Ethics Quarterly 4(4), 409–429.Google Scholar
  51. Freeman, R. E. and W. M. Evan: 1990, ‘Corporate Governance: A Stakeholder Interpretation’, Journal of Behavioral Economics 19(4), 337–359.Google Scholar
  52. Freeman, R. E. and R. A. Philips: 2002, ‘Stakeholder Theory: A Libertarian Defence’, Business Ethics Quarterly 12(3), 331–349.Google Scholar
  53. Friedman, M.: 1970, ‘The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits’, New York Times Magazine, September 13th, 32–33, 122, 126.Google Scholar
  54. Friedman, M. and R. Friedman: 1962, Capitalism and Freedom (University of Chicago Press, Chicago).Google Scholar
  55. Frooman, J.: 1997, ‘Socially Irresponsible and Illegal Behavior and Shareholder’, Business and Society 36(3), 221–250.Google Scholar
  56. Gladwin, T. N. and J. J. Kennelly: 1995, ‘Shifting Paradigms for Sustainable Development: Implications for Management Theory and Research.’ Academy of Management Review 20(4), 874–904.Google Scholar
  57. Global Sullivan Principles, The: 1999, http:// globalsullivanprinciples.org (September 2003).Google Scholar
  58. Goodpaster, K. E.: 1999, ‘Bridging East and West in Management Ethics: Kyosei and the Moral Point of View’, in G. Enderle (ed.), International Business Ethics. Challenges and Approaches (University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame), pp. 151–159.Google Scholar
  59. Greening, D. W. and B. Gray: 1994, ‘Testing a Model of Organizational Response to Social and Political Issues’, Academy of Management Journal 37, (467–498).Google Scholar
  60. Griffin, J. J.: 2000, ‘Corporate Social Performance: Research Directions for the 21st Century’, Business and Society 39(4), 479–493.Google Scholar
  61. Griffin, J. J. and J. F. Mahon: 1997, ‘The Corporate Social Performance and Corporate Financial Performance Debate: Twenty-five Years of Incomparable Research’, Business and Society 36(1), 5–31.Google Scholar
  62. Harrison, J. S. and C. H. St. John: 1996, ‘Managing and Partnering with External Stakeholders’, Academy of Management Executive 10(2), 46–61.Google Scholar
  63. Hart, S. L.: 1995, ‘A Natural-Resource-Based View of the Firm’, Academy of Management Review 20(4), 986–1012.Google Scholar
  64. Hart, S. L. and C. M. Christensen: 2002, ‘The Great Leap. Driving Innovation from the Base of the Pyramid’, MIT Sloan Management Review 44(1), 51–57.Google Scholar
  65. Heald, M.: 1988, The Social Responsibilities of Business: Company and Community, 1900–1960 (Transaction Books, New Brunswick).Google Scholar
  66. Hillman, A. J. and G. D. Keim: 2001, ‘Shareholder Value, Stakeholder Management, and Social Issues: What's the Bottom Line’, Strategic Management Journal 22(2), 125–140.Google Scholar
  67. Husted, B.W. and D. B. Allen: 2000, ‘Is It Ethical to Use Ethics as Strategy?’, Journal of Business Ethics 27(1–2), 21–32.Google Scholar
  68. Jensen, M. C.: 2000, ‘Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory, and the Corporate Objective Function’, in M. Beer and N. Nohria (eds.), Breaking the Code of Change (Harvard Business School Press, Boston), pp. 37–58. Reprinted (2002) as ‘Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory, and the Corporate Objective Function’, Business Ethics Quarterly 12(2), 235-256.Google Scholar
  69. Jensen, M. C. and W. Meckling: 1976, ‘Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Cost, and Capital Structure’, Journal of Financial Economics 3(October), 305–360.Google Scholar
  70. Jones, T. M.: 1980, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility Revisited, Redefined’, California Management Review 22(2), 59–67.Google Scholar
  71. Jones, T. M.: 1983, ‘An Integrating Framework for Research in Business and Society: A Step Toward the Elusive Paradigm?’, Academy of Management Review 8(4), 559–565.Google Scholar
  72. Kaku, R.: 1997, ‘The Path of Kyosei’, Harvard Business Review 75(4), 55–62.Google Scholar
  73. Kaptein, M. and R. Van Tulder: 2003, ‘Toward Effective Stakeholder Dialogue’, Business and Society Review 108(Summer), 203–225.Google Scholar
  74. Keim, G. D.: 1978, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: An Assessment of the Enlightened Self-Interest Model’, Academy of Management Review 3(1), 32–40.Google Scholar
  75. Kempshall, M. S.: 1999, The Common Good in Late Medieval Political Thought (Oxford University Press, Oxford).Google Scholar
  76. Key, S. and S. J. Popkin: 1998, ‘Integrating Ethics into the Strategic Management Process: Doing Well by Doing Good’, Management Decision 36(5–6), 331–339.Google Scholar
  77. Leavitt, T.: 1958, ‘The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, Harvard Business Review 36(September–October), 41–50.Google Scholar
  78. Litz, R. A.: 1996, ‘A Resourced-Based-View of the Socially Responsible Firm: Stakeholder Interdependence, Ethical Awareness, and Issue Responsiveness as Strategic Assets’, Journal of Business Ethics 15, 1355–1363.Google Scholar
  79. Mahon, J. F. and R. A. McGowan: 1991, ‘Searching for the Common Good: A Process-Oriented Approach’, Business Horizons 34(4), 79–87.Google Scholar
  80. Maritain, J.: 1966, The Person and the Common Good (Notre Dame University Press, Notre Dame).Google Scholar
  81. Maritain, J.: 1971[c1943], The Rights of Man and Natural Law (Gordian Press, New York).Google Scholar
  82. Matten, D. and A. Crane: in press, ‘Corporate Citizenship: Towards an Extended Theoretical Conceptualization’, Academy of Management Review.Google Scholar
  83. Matten, D., A. Crane and W. Chapple: 2003, ‘Behind de Mask: Revealing the True Face of Corporate Citizenship’, Journal of Business Ethics 45(1–2), 109–120.Google Scholar
  84. McMahon, T. F.: 1986, ‘Models of the Relationship of the Firm to Society’, Journal of Business Ethics 5, 181–191.Google Scholar
  85. McWilliams, A. and D. Siegel: 2001, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: A Theory of the Firm Perspective’, Academy of Management Review 26(1), 117–127.Google Scholar
  86. Mele, D.: 2002, Not only Stakeholder Interests. The Firm Oriented toward the Common Good (University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame).Google Scholar
  87. Mitchell, R. K., B. R. Agle and D. J. Wood: 1997, ‘Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts’, Academy of Management Review 22(4), 853–886.Google Scholar
  88. Murray, K. B. and J. R. Montanari: 1986, ‘Strategic Management of the Socially Responsible Firm: Integrating Management and Marketing Theory’, Academy of Management Review 11(4), 815–828.Google Scholar
  89. Ogden, S. and R. Watson: 1999, ‘Corporate Performance and Stakeholder Management: Balancing Shareholder and Customer Interests in the U.K. Privatized Water Industry’, Academy of Management Journal 42(5), 526–538.Google Scholar
  90. Parsons, T.: 1961, ‘An Outline of the Social System’, in T. Parsons, E. A. Shils, K. D. Naegle and J. R. Pitts (eds.), Theories of Society (Free Press, New York).Google Scholar
  91. Petrick, J. and J. Quinn: 2001, ‘The Challenge of Leadership Accountability for Integrity Capacity as a Strategic Asset’, Journal of Business Ethics 34, 331–343.Google Scholar
  92. Phillips, R. A.: 1997, ‘Stakeholder Theory and a Principle of Fairness’, Business Ethics Quarterly 7(1), 51–66.Google Scholar
  93. Phillips, R. A.: 2003, ‘Stakeholder Legitimacy’, Business Ethics Quarterly 13(1), 25–41.Google Scholar
  94. Phillips, R. A., E. Freeman and A. C. Wicks: 2003, ‘What Stakeholder Theory Is Not’, Business Ethics Quarterly 13(1), 479–502.Google Scholar
  95. Pope John Paul II: 1991, Encyclical ‘Centesimus Annus’ (Catholic Truth Society, London) and www.vatican.va.Google Scholar
  96. Porter, M. E.: 1980, Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors (Free Press, New York).Google Scholar
  97. Porter, M. E. and M. R. Kramer: 2002, ‘The Competitive Advantage of Corporate Philanthropy’, Harvard Business Review 80(12), 56–69.Google Scholar
  98. Porter, M. E. and C. Van der Linde: 1995, ‘Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate’, Harvard Business Review 73(5), 120–133.Google Scholar
  99. Post, J. E., L. E. Preston, S. Sauter-Sachs and S. Sachs: 2002, Redefining the Corporation: Stakeholder Management and Organizational Wealth (Stanford University Press, Stanford).Google Scholar
  100. Prahalad, C. K.: 2002, ‘Strategies for the Bottom of the Economic Pyramid: India as a Source of Innovation’, Reflections: The SOL Journal 3(4), 6–18.Google Scholar
  101. Prahalad, C. K. and A. Hammond: 2002, ‘Serving the World's Poor, Profitably’, Harvard Business Review 80(9), 48–58.Google Scholar
  102. Preston, L. E.: 1975, ‘Corporation and Society: The Search for a Paradigm’, Journal of Economic Literature 13(2), 434–454.Google Scholar
  103. Preston, L. E. and J. E. Post: 1975, Private Management and Public Policy. The Principle of Public Responsibility (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ).Google Scholar
  104. Preston, L. E. and J. E. Post: 1981, ‘Private Management and Public Policy’, California Management Review 23(3), 56–63.Google Scholar
  105. Quinn, D. P. and T. M. Jones: 1995, ‘An Agent Morality View of Business Policy’, Academy of Management Review 20(1), 22–42.Google Scholar
  106. Roman, R., S. Hayibor and B. R. Agle: 1999, ‘The Relationship between Social Performance and Financial Performance’, Business and Society 38(1), 109–125.Google Scholar
  107. Ross, S.: 1973, ‘The Economy Theory of the Agency: The Principal's Problem’, American Economic Review 63, 134–139.Google Scholar
  108. Rowley, T. J.: 1997, ‘Moving Beyond Dyadic Ties: A Network Theory of Stakeholder Influences’, Academy of Management Review 22(4), 887–911.Google Scholar
  109. Rowley, T. and S. Berman: 2000, ‘New Brand of Corporate Social Performance’, Business and Society 39(4), 397–412.Google Scholar
  110. Schwartz, M. S. and A. B. Carroll: 2003, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: A Three-Domain Approach’, Business Ethics Quarterly 13(4), 503–530.Google Scholar
  111. Sethi, S. P.: 1975, ‘Dimensions of Corporate Social Performance: An Analytical Framework’, California Management Review 17(3), 58–65.Google Scholar
  112. Shrivastava, P.: 1995, ‘The Role of Corporations in Achieving Ecological Sustainability’, Academy of Management Review 20, 936–960.Google Scholar
  113. Simon, Y. R.: 1992 (1965), in V. Kuic (ed.), The Tradition of Natural Law. A Philosopher's Reflections. (Fordham University Press, New York).Google Scholar
  114. Smith, T. W.: 1999, ‘Aristotle on the Conditions for and Limits of the Common Good’, American Political Science Review 93(3), 625–637.Google Scholar
  115. Smith, W. and M. Higgins: 2000, ‘Cause-Related Marketing: Ethics and the Ecstatic’, Business and Society 39(3), 304–322.Google Scholar
  116. Solomon, R. C.: 1992, ‘Corporate Roles, Personal Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach to Business Ethics’, Business Ethics Quarterly 2(3), 317–340.Google Scholar
  117. Stead, J. G. and E. Stead: 2000, ‘Eco-enterprise strategy: Standing for sustainability’, Journal of Business Ethics 24(4), 313–330.Google Scholar
  118. Sturdivant, F. D.: 1979, ‘Executives and Activist: Test of Stakeholder Management’, California Management Review 22(Fall), 53–59.Google Scholar
  119. Sulmasy, D. P.: 2001, ‘Four Basic Notions of the Common Good’, St. John's Law Review 75(2), 303–311.Google Scholar
  120. Swanson, D. L.: 1995, ‘Addressing a Theoretical Problem by Reorienting the Corporate Social Performance Model’, Academy of Management Review 20(1), 43–64.Google Scholar
  121. Swanson, D. L.: 1999, ‘Toward an Integrative Theory of Business and Society: A Research Strategy for Corporate Social Performance’, Academy of Management Review 24(3), 506–521.Google Scholar
  122. Teece, D. J., G. Pisano and A. Shuen: 1997, ‘Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management’, Strategic Management Journal 18(7), 509–533.Google Scholar
  123. The Clarkson Center for Business Ethics: 1999, Principles of Stakeholder Management (Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, Toronto, Canada). Reprinted (2002) on, Business Ethics Quarterly 12(4), 257–264.Google Scholar
  124. Tichy, N. M., A. R. McGill and L. St. Clair: 1997, Corporate Global Citizenship (The New Lexington Press, San Francisco).Google Scholar
  125. Treviño, L. K. and G. R. Weaver: 1994, ‘Normative and Empirical Business Ethics’, Business Ethics Quarterly 4(2), 129–143.Google Scholar
  126. United Nations: 1999, Global Compact (www. unglobalcompact.org).Google Scholar
  127. Van Marrewijk, M.: 2003, ‘Concept and Definitions of CSR and Corporate Sustainability: Between Agency and Communion’, Journal of Business Ethics 44, 95–105.Google Scholar
  128. Van Marrewijk, M. and M. Werre: 2003, ‘Multiple Levels of Corporate Sustainability’, Journal of Business Ethics 44(2/3), 107–120.Google Scholar
  129. Varadarajan, P. R. and A. Menon: 1988, ‘Cause-Related Marketing: A Coalignment of Marketing Strategy and Corporate Philanthropy’, Journal of Marketing 52(3), 58–58.Google Scholar
  130. Velasquez, M.: 1992, ‘International Business, Morality and the Common Good’, Business Ethics Quarterly 2(1), 27–40.Google Scholar
  131. Vogel, D.: 1986, ‘The Study of Social Issues in Management: A Critical Appraisal’, California Management Review 28(2), 142–152.Google Scholar
  132. Votaw, D.: 1972, ‘Genius Became Rare: A Comment on the Doctrine of Social Responsibility Pt 1’, California Management Review 15(2), 25–31.Google Scholar
  133. Waddock, S. A. and S. B. Graves: 1997, ‘The Corporate Social Performance-Financial Performance Link’, Strategic Management Journal 18(4), 303–320.Google Scholar
  134. Wartick, S. and P. L. Cochran: 1985, ‘The Evolution of Corporate Social Performance Model’, Academy of Management Review 10(4), 758–769.Google Scholar
  135. Wartick, S. L. and R. E. Rude: 1986, ‘Issues Management: Corporate Fad or Corporate Function?’, California Management Review 29(1), 124–132.Google Scholar
  136. Wartick and Mahon: 1994: ‘Towards a Substantive Definition of the Corporate Issue Construct: A Review and Synthesis of Literature’, Business and Society 33(3), 293–311.Google Scholar
  137. Weiss, J. W.: 2003, Business Ethics: A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach, 3rd ed. (Thomson–South-Western, Ohio).Google Scholar
  138. Wernelfelt, B.: 1984, ‘A Resource Based View of the Firm’, Strategic Management Review 5, 171–180.Google Scholar
  139. Wheeler, D., B. Colbert and R. E. Freeman: 2003, ‘Focusing on Value: Reconciling Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainability and a Stakeholder Approach in a Network World’, Journal of General Management 28(3), 1–29.Google Scholar
  140. Wicks, A. C., D. R. Gilbert, Jr. and R. E. Freeman: 1994, ‘A Feminist Reinterpretation of the Stakeholder Concept’, Business Ethics Quarterly 4(4), 475–497.Google Scholar
  141. Wijnberg, N. M.: 2000, ‘Normative Stakeholder Theory and Aristotle: The Link between Ethics and Politics’, Journal of Business Ethics 25, 329–342.Google Scholar
  142. Windsor, D.: 2001, ‘The Future of Corporate Social Responsibility’, International Journal of Organizational Analysis 9(3), 225–256.Google Scholar
  143. Wood, D. J.: 1991a, ‘Social Issues in Management: Theory and Research in Corporate Social Performance’, Journal of Management 17(2), 383–406.Google Scholar
  144. Wood, D. J.: 1991b, ‘Corporate Social Performance Revisited’, Academy of Management Review 16(4), 691–718.Google Scholar
  145. Wood, D. J. and J. M. Lodgson: 2002, ‘Business Citizenship: From Individuals to Organizations’, Business Ethics Quarterly, Ruffin Series, No. 3, 59–94.Google Scholar
  146. World Business Council for Sustainable Development: 2000, Corporate Social Responsibility: Making Good Business Sense (World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Geneve).Google Scholar
  147. World Commission on Environment and Development: 1987, Our Common Future (Oxford University Press, Oxford).Google Scholar
  148. Yamaji, K.: 1997, ‘A Global Perspective of Ethics in Business’, Business Ethics Quarterly 7(3), 55–71.Google Scholar
  149. Zadek, S.: 2001, ‘Partnership Alchemy: Engagement, Innovation, and Governance’, in J. Andriof and M. McIntosh (eds.), Perspectives on Corporate Citizenship (Greenleaf, Sheffield, UK), pp. 200–212.Google Scholar
  150. Department of Business Ethics, IESE Business School, University of Navarra, Av. Pearson, 21, 08034 Barcelona, Spain E-mail: mele@iese.edu, egarriga@iese.eduGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisabet Garriga
  • Domènec Melé

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations