Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 51, Issue 2, pp 119–128 | Cite as

An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Degree of Religiousness Upon an Individual's Corporate Social Responsiveness Orientation

  • John Angelidis
  • Nabil Ibrahim


The recent failures and scandals involving many large businesses have highlighted the importance of corporate social responsibility as a fundamental factor in the soundness of the free market system. The corporate social responsiveness orientation of business executives plays an important role in corporate decision making since managers make important decisions on behalf of their corporations. This paper explores whether there is a relationship between an individual's degree of religiousness and his or her corporate social responsiveness (CSR) orientation. The results of a survey of 473 business students found a significant relationship between degree of religiousness and attitudes toward the economic and ethical components of CSR. Some explanations as well as limited generalizations and implications are developed.

Religiousness social responsibility ethics students business education 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, W. F. and J. R. Monsen: 1979, ‘On the Measurement of Corporate Social Responsibility’, Academy of Management Journal 22, 501–515.Google Scholar
  2. Abratt, R. and D. Sacks: 1988, ‘The Marketing Challenge: Towards Profitable and Socially Responsible’, Journal of Business Ethics 7, 497–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, J., Jr.: 1986, ‘Social Responsibility and the Corporation’, Business Horizons 29, 22–27.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews, K. R.: 1980, ‘Directors' Responsibility for Corporate Strategy’, Harvard Business Review 30, 30.Google Scholar
  5. Angelidis, J. and N. Ibrahim: 1991, ‘Toward a Contingency Model of Corporate Social Responsibility’, SE TIMS Proceedings.Google Scholar
  6. Arlow, P.: 1991, ‘Personal Characteristics in College Students' Evaluations of Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility’, Journal of Business Ethics 10, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arlow P. and T. Ulrich: 1980, ‘Business Ethics, Social Responsibility, Business Students: An Empirical Comparison of Clark's Study’, Akron Business and Economics Review 6, 17–23.Google Scholar
  8. Arslan, M.: 2001, ‘The Work Ethic Values of Protestant British, Catholic Irish and Muslim Turkish’, Journal of Business Ethics 31(4), 321–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aupperle, K. E., A. B. Carroll and J. P. Hatfield: 1985, ‘An Empirical Examination of the Relationship Between Corporate Social Responsibility and Profitability’, Academy of Management Journal 28, 446–463.Google Scholar
  10. Aupperle, K. E., F. B. Simmons III and W. Acar: 1990, ‘An Empirical Investigation Into How Entrepreneurs View Their Social Responsibilities’, 1990 Proceedings of the Academy of Management.Google Scholar
  11. Baig, E.: 1987, January 19 ‘America's Most Admired Corporations’, Fortune, 18–31.Google Scholar
  12. Berenheim, R.: 1988, May ‘An Outbreak of Ethics’, Across the Board, 14–19.Google Scholar
  13. Bok, D.: 1986, ‘Can Ethics be Taught?’, Change 8, 26–30.Google Scholar
  14. Brenner, S. and E. Molander: 1977, ‘Is the Ethics of Business Changing?’, Harvard Business Review 5, 55–71.Google Scholar
  15. Bulik, B.: 2002, ‘Can CEOs Defend Corporate America's Image?’, Chief Executive 180, (July), 5–58.Google Scholar
  16. Burton, B. and W. Hegarty: 1999, ‘Some Determinants of Student Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation’, Business and Society 38, 188–205.Google Scholar
  17. Carroll, A.: 1979, ‘A Three Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Social Performance’, Academy of Management Review 4, 497–505.Google Scholar
  18. Carroll, A.: 1991, ‘The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Toward the Moral Management of Organizational Stakeholders’, Business Horizons 34, 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carroll, A. B.: 1989, Business and Society, Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western, p. 39.Google Scholar
  20. Cavanagh, G. F.: 1999, ‘Spirituality for managers: Context and critique’, Journal of Organizational Change Management 12(3), 186–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coffey, R. E., C. W. Cook and P. L. Hunsaker: 1994, Management and Organizational Behavior Burr Ridge, Irwin IL, p. 87.Google Scholar
  22. Conlin, K.: 1986, ‘Business Schools with a Conscience’, The New York Times E7.Google Scholar
  23. Dearborn, D. and H. Simon: 1958, ‘Selective Perception: A Note on the Departmental Identification of Executives’, Sociometry 21, 140–144.Google Scholar
  24. DeSalvia, D. and G. Gemmill: 1971, ‘An Exploratory Study of the Personal Value Systems of College Students and Mangers’, Academy of Management Journal 14, 227–238.Google Scholar
  25. Fisher, A.: 1990, ‘How to Cut Your Legal Costs’, Fortune 121, 185–192.Google Scholar
  26. Ford, R. and F. McLaughlin: 1984, ‘Perceptions of Socially Responsible Activities and Attitudes: A Comparison of Business Deans and Corporate Chief Executives’, Academy of Management Journal, 27 666–674.Google Scholar
  27. Friedman, H. H.: 1985, ‘Ethical Behavior in Business: A Hierarchical Approach from the Talmud’, Journal of Business Ethics 4(2), 117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Galen, M.: 1992, April 13 ‘Guilty! Too Many Lawyers and Too Much Litigation’, Business Week, 60–65.Google Scholar
  29. Gandz, J. and N. Hayes: 1988, ‘Teaching Business Ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics 7, 657–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goodman, C. and G. Crawford: 1974, ‘Young Executives: A Source of New Ethics?’, Personnel Journal 63, 180–187.Google Scholar
  31. Graafland, J.: 2002, ‘Modelling the Trade-off Between Profits and Principles’, De Economist 150, 129–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hathaway, J. W.: 1990, ‘Students Teach Business a Lesson’, Business and Society Review 19, 58–61.Google Scholar
  33. Hollon, C. and T. Ulrich: 1979, ‘Personal Business Ethics: Managers vs. Managers-to-be’, Southern Business Review 5, 17–22.Google Scholar
  34. Hosmer, L.: 1985, ‘The Other 338: Why a Majority of our Schools of Business Administration do not Offer a Course in Business Ethics’, Journal of Business 4, 17–22.Google Scholar
  35. Ibrahim, N. and J. P. Angelidis: 1990, ‘Board Member Characteristics and their Level of Involvement in Strategic Management’, SE TIMS Proceedings.Google Scholar
  36. Ibrahim, N. and J. P. Angelidis: 1993, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: A Comparative Analysis of Perceptions of Top Executives and Business Students’, The Mid-Atlantic Journal of Business 29(3), 303–314.Google Scholar
  37. Ibrahim, N. L., R. P. McDougall and G. Greene: 1991, ‘Characteristics and performance of Christian Based companies’, Journal of Business Ethics 10, 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kelley, L. and A. Whatley: 1987, ‘Assessing the Effects of Culture on Managerial Attitudes: A Three-culture Test’, Journal of International Business Studies 18, 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kesner, I. F. and D. E. Dalton: 1986, ‘Boards of Directors and the Checks and (IPM) Balances of Corporate Governance’, Business Horizons 29, 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kohlberg, L.: 1976, ‘Moral Stages and Moralization: The Cognitive Developmental Approach’, Moral Development and Behavior: Theory, Research, and Social Issues (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York).Google Scholar
  41. Lewis, D. E.: 2001, ‘Workplace Spirituality Moves up on the Agenda Some Workers Seek More Than Just a Job’, Boston Globe, G.1.Google Scholar
  42. Lewin, T.: 1986, ‘Young, Eager, and Indicted’, The New York Times 25.Google Scholar
  43. Longenecker, J., J. McKinney and C. Moore: 1989, ‘The Generation Gap in Business Ethics’, Business Horizons 32, 9–14.Google Scholar
  44. McGuire, J., A. Sundgren and T. Schneeweis: 1988, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Financial Performance’, Academy of Management Journal 31, 854–872.Google Scholar
  45. McMahon, T.: 1986, ‘Models of Relationship of the Firm to Society’, Journal of Business Ethics 5, 181–191.Google Scholar
  46. Meglino, B. M. and E. C. Ravlin: 1998, ‘Individual Values in Organizations: Concepts, Controversies, and Research’, Journal of Management 24(3), 351–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Moskowitz, M.: 1972, ‘Choosing Socially Responsible Stocks’, Business and Society Review 1, 71–75.Google Scholar
  48. Murray, T. J.: 1987, ‘Ethics Programs: Just a Pretty Face?’, Business Month 129, 30–32.Google Scholar
  49. Nadesan, M. H.: 1999, ‘The Discourses of Corporate Spiritualism and Evangelical Capitalism’, Management Communication Quarterly 13(1), 3–42.Google Scholar
  50. Newstrom, J. and W. Ruch: 1976, ‘The Ethics of Business Students: Preparation for a Career’, AACSB Bulletin 12, 21–29.Google Scholar
  51. Nunnally, J.: 1978, Introduction to Psychological Measurement (McGraw-Hill, New York).Google Scholar
  52. Paul, C.: 1991, ‘Reflections on the Utility of a Middle Aged Field’, California Management Review 33, 86–87.Google Scholar
  53. Posner, B. and W. Schmidt: 1984, ‘Values of the American Manager: An Update’, California Management Review 26, 206–216.Google Scholar
  54. Post, J. E.: 1991, ‘Identity Crisis in Middle Age: The Business and Society Field’, California Management Review 33, 83–85.Google Scholar
  55. Powers, C. and D. Vogel: 1980, Ethics in the Education of Business Managers (The Hastings Center, New York).Google Scholar
  56. Preston, L. E.: 1991, ‘Responses’, California Management Review 33, 79–82.Google Scholar
  57. Purcell, T. W.: 1977, ‘Do Courses in Business Ethics Pay Off?’, California Management Journal 19, 50–58.Google Scholar
  58. Samuelson, S.: 1990, ‘The Changing Relationship Between Managers and Lawyers’, Business Horizons 33, 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Scott, W. and T. Mitchell: 1985, ‘The Moral Failure of Management Education’, The Chronicle of Higher Education 32, 35.Google Scholar
  60. Singhapakdi, A., J. Marta, K. Rallapalli and C. P. Rao: 2000, ‘Toward an Understanding of Religiousness and Marketing Ethics: An Empirical Study’, Journal of Business Ethics 27(4), 305–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Smith, D.: 1994, ‘Determinants of Voluntary Association Participation and Volunteering: A Literature Review’, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 23, 243–263.Google Scholar
  62. Smith, W. and R. Blackburn: 1988, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: A Psychometric Examination of a Management Instrument’, Proceedings of the Southern Management Association, 293–295.Google Scholar
  63. Sonnenfeld, J.: 1981, ‘Executive Apologies for Price Fixing: Role Biased Perceptions of Causality’, Academy of Management Journal 24, 192–198.Google Scholar
  64. Stead, B. and J. Miller: 1988, ‘Can Social Awareness be Increased through Business Curricula?’, Journal of Business Ethics 7, 553–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stevens, G.: 1984, ‘Ethical Inclinations of Tomorrow's Citizens: Actions Speak Louder?’, Journal of Business Education 59, 147–152.Google Scholar
  66. Stock, H.: 2002, ‘CEOs Scrimp on Social Programs Despite Investor Interest’, Investor Relations Business 4, 1–2.Google Scholar
  67. Ullman, A.: 1985, ‘Date in Search of a Theory: A Critical Examination of the Relationship Among Social Performance, Social Disclosure, and Economic Performance’, Academy of Management Review 10, 540–577.Google Scholar
  68. Unni, V. K. and Chitgopekar: 1989, ‘Orientations Toward Social Responsibility of Women Entrepreneurs’, Southern Management Association Proceedings, 235–237.Google Scholar
  69. Vance, S. C.: 1975, ‘Are Socially Responsible Corporations Good Investment Risks?’, Management Review 64, 19–24.Google Scholar
  70. Verschoor, C. and E. Murphy: 2002, ‘The Financial Performance of Large U.S. Firms and those with Global Prominence: How do the Best Corporate Citizens Rate?’, Business and Society Review 107, 371–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Vogel, D.: 1987, ‘Could an Ethics Course have kept Ivan from Going Bad?’, The Wall Street Journal 27, 24.Google Scholar
  72. Watanabe, T.: 1999, ‘Dalai Lama Calls for a New Era of Ethics; Buddhism: Addressing Pasadena Audience, the Tibetan Spiritual Leader Urges Social Service, Tolerance and 'Inner Disarmament’, The Los Angeles Times 1.Google Scholar
  73. Welcomer, S.: 2002, ‘Firm-Stakeholder Networks’, Business and Society 41, 251–257.Google Scholar
  74. White, B. J. and B. R. Montgomery: 1980, ‘Corporate Codes of Conduct’, California Management Review 22, 80–87.Google Scholar
  75. Whitehill, A.: 1989, ‘American Executives through Foreign Eyes’, Business Horizons 32, 42–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wood, D. J.: 1991, ‘Social Issues in Management: Theory and Research in Corporate Social Performance’, Journal of Management 17(2), 383–406.Google Scholar
  77. Zanisek, T. J.: 1979, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: A Conceptual Model Based on Organizational Literature’, Academy of Management Review 4(3), 359–368.Google Scholar
  78. Zigarelli, M.: 1993, ‘Catholic Social Teaching and the Employment Relationship’, Journal of Business Ethics 12(1), 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Angelidis
    • 1
  • Nabil Ibrahim
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ManagementSt. John's UniversityJamaicaU.S.A.
  2. 2.Grover Maxwell Professor of Business Administration, College of Business AdministrationAugusta State UniversityAugustaU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations