Advertisement

Biogeochemistry

, Volume 69, Issue 3, pp 379–403 | Cite as

Effects of elevated CO2 on nutrient cycling in a sweetgum plantation

  • D. W. Johnson
  • W. Cheng
  • J. D. Joslin
  • R. J. Norby
  • N. T. Edwards
  • D. E. Todd
Article

Abstract

The effects of elevated CO2 on nutrient cycling and selected belowground processes in the closed-canopy sweetgum plantation were assessed as part of a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. We hypothesized that nitrogen (N) constraints to growth response to elevated CO2 would be mitigated primarily by reduced tissue concentrations (resulting in increased biomass production per unit uptake) rather than increased uptake. Conversely, we hypothesized that the constraints of other nutrients to growth response to elevated CO2 would be mitigated primarily by increased uptake because of adequate soil supplies. The first hypothesis was not supported: although elevated CO2 caused reduced foliar N concentrations, it also resulted in increased uptake and requirement of N, primarily because of greater root turnover. The additional N uptake with elevated CO2 constituted between 10 and 40% of the estimated soil mineralizeable N pool. The second hypothesis was largely supported: elevated CO2 had no significant effects on tissue concentrations of P, K, Ca, or Mg and caused significantly increased uptake and requirement of K, Ca, and Mg. Soil exchangeable pools of these nutrients are large and should pose no constraint to continued growth responses. Elevated CO2 also caused increased microbial biomass, reduced N leaching and increased P leaching from O horizons (measured by resin lysimeters), reduced soil solution NH 4 + , SO 4 2− , and Ca2+ concentrations, and increased soil solution pH. There were no statistically significant treatment effects on soil nutrient availability as measured by resin capsules, resin stakes, or in situ incubations. Despite significantly lower litterfall N concentrations in the elevated CO2 treatment, there were no significant treatment effects on translocation or forest floor biomass or nutrient contents. There were also no significant treatment effects on the rate of decomposition of fine roots. In general, the effects of elevated CO2 on nutrient cycling in this study were not large; future constraints on growth responses imposed by N limitations will depend on changes in N demand, atmospheric N deposition, and soil mineralization rates.

Carbon dioxide Forest Nutrients Uptake Nutrient cycling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen A.A., Andrews J.A., Finzi A.C., Matamala R., Richter D.D. and Schlesinger W.A. 2000. Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on belowground processes in a Pinus taeda forest. Ecol. Appl. 10: 437–448.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews J.A. and Schlesinger W.H. 2001. Soil CO2 dynamics, acidification, and chemical weathering in a temperate forest with experimental CO2 enrichment. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 15: 149–162.Google Scholar
  3. Bernston G.M. and Bazzaz F.A. 1996. Belowground positive and negative feedbacks on CO2 and growth enhancement. Plant Soil 187: 119–133.Google Scholar
  4. Cheng W., Sims D.A., Luo Y., Johnson D.W., Ball J.T. and Coleman J.S. 2000. Carbon budgeting in plant–soil mesocosms under elevated CO2: locally missing carbon? Global Change Biol. 6: 99–110.Google Scholar
  5. Cole D.W. and Rapp M. 1981. Elemental cycling in forest ecosystems. In: Reichle D.E. (ed) Dynamic Properties of Forest Ecosystems (pp. 341–409 Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  6. Curtis P.S., Vogel C.S., Wang X., Pregitzer K.S., Zak D.R., Lussenhop J., Kubiske M. and Teeri J. 2000. Gas exchange, leaf nitrogen, and growth efficiency of Populus tremloides in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. Ecol. Appl. 10: 3–17.Google Scholar
  7. Dobermann A.H., Langner A.H., Mutscher H., Yang J.E., Skogley E.O., Adviento M.A. and Pampolino M.F. 1994. Nutrient adsorption kinetics of ion exchange resin capsules: a study with soils of international origin. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant. Anal. 25: 1329–1353.Google Scholar
  8. Finzi A.C., DeLucia E.H., Hamilton J.G., Richter D.D. and Schlesinger W.H. 2002. The nitrogen budget of a pine forest under free air CO2 enrichment. Oecologia 132: 567–578.Google Scholar
  9. Hamilton J.G., DeLucia E.H., George K., Naidu S.L., Finzi A.C. and Schlesinger W.H. 2001. Forest carbon balance under elevated CO2. Oecologia 131: 250–260.Google Scholar
  10. Hendrey G.R., Ellsworth D.S., Lewin K.F. and Nagy J. 1999. A free-air system for exposing tall forest vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO2. Global Change Biol. 5: 293–309.Google Scholar
  11. Johnson D.W. 1992. Nitrogen retention in forest soils. J. Environ. Qual. 21: 1–12.Google Scholar
  12. Johnson D.W. and Ball J.T. 1996. Ch. 16. Interactions between CO2 and nitrogen in forests: can we extrapolate from the seedling to the stand level? In: Koch G. and Mooney H. (eds) Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems Academic Press, San Diego (pp. 283–316).Google Scholar
  13. Johnson D.W. and Lindberg S.E. 1992. Atmospheric Deposition and Forest Nutrient Cycling: A Synthesis of the Integrated Forest Study. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Johnson D.W. and Todd D.E. 1990. Nutrient cycling in forests of Walker Branch Watershed: roles of uptake and leaching in causing soil change. J. Environ. Qual. 19: 97–104.Google Scholar
  15. Johnson D.W., Henderson G.S., Huff D.D., Lindberg S.E., Richter D.D., Shriner D.S. and Turner J. 1982. Cycling of organic and inorganic sulphur in a chestnut oak forest. Oecologia 54: 141–148.Google Scholar
  16. Johnson D.W., Miegroet H.V., Lindberg S.E., Harrison R.B. and Todd D.E. 1991. Nutrient cycling in red spruce forests of the Great Smoky Mountains. Can. J. For. Res. 21: 769–787.Google Scholar
  17. Johnson D.W., Ball J.T. and Walker R.F. 1997. Effects of CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on vegetation and soil nutrient content in juvenile ponderosa pine. Plant Soil 190: 29–40.Google Scholar
  18. Johnson M.G., Tingey D.T., Phillips D.L. and Storm M.J. 2001. Advancing fine root research with minirhizotrons. Environ. Exp. Bot. 45: 263–289.Google Scholar
  19. Johnson D.W., Cheng W. and Ball J.T. 2002a. Effects of [CO2] and nitrogen fertilization on soils planted with ponderosa pine. Plant Soil 224: 99–113.Google Scholar
  20. Johnson D.W., Cheng W. and Ball J.T. 2002b. Effects of CO2 and N fertilization on decomposition and N immobilization in ponderosa pine litter. Plant Soil 224: 115–122.Google Scholar
  21. Johnson D.W., Hungate B.A., Dijkstra P., Hymus G., Hinkle C.R. and Stiling P. 2003. The effects of elevated CO2 on nutrient distribution in a fire-adapted Scrub Oak Forest. Ecol. Appl.Google Scholar
  22. Körner C. and Arnone J.A. 1992. Responses to elevated carbon dioxide in artificial tropical ecosystems. Science 257: 1672–1675.Google Scholar
  23. McGuire A.D., Melillo J.M. and Joyce L.A. 1995. The role of nitrogen in the response of forest net primary production to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 26: 473–503.Google Scholar
  24. Medlyn M.E., McMurtrie R.E., Dewar R.C. and Jeffreys M.P. 2000. Soil processes dominate the long-term response of forest net primary productivity to increased temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Can. J. For. Res. 30: 873–888.Google Scholar
  25. Miegroet H.V., Norby R.J. and Tschaplinski T.J. 1995. Nitrogen fertilization strategies in a short-rotation sycamore plantation. For. Ecol. Manage. 64: 13–24.Google Scholar
  26. Nambiar E.K.S. and Fife D.N. 1991. Nutrient translocation in temperate conifers. Tree Physiol. 9: 185–208.Google Scholar
  27. Norby R.J., O'Neill E.G., Hood W.G. and Luxmoore R.J. 1987. Carbon allocation, root exudation, and mycorrhizal colonization of Pinus echinata seedlings grown under CO2 enrichment. Tree Physiol. 3: 203–210.Google Scholar
  28. Norby R.J., Wullschleger S.D., Gunderson C.A., Johnson D.W. and Ceulemans R. 1999. Tree responses to rising CO2: implications for the future forest. Plant Cell Environ. 22: 683–714.Google Scholar
  29. Norby R.J., Cotrufo M.F., Ineson P., O'Neill E.G. and Canadell H.P. 2001a. Elevated CO2, litter chemistry, and decomposition: a synthesis. Oecologia 127: 153–165.Google Scholar
  30. Norby R.J., Todd D.E., Fults J. and Johnson D.W. 2001b. Allometric determination of tree growth in a CO2-enriched sweetgum stand. New Phytol. 150: 477–487.Google Scholar
  31. Norby R.J., Hanson P.J., O'Neill E.G., Tschaplinski T.J., Weltzin J.F., Hansen R.T., Cheng W., Wullschleger S.D., Gunderson C.A., Edwards N.T. and Johnson D.W. 2002. Net primary productivity of a CO2-enriched deciduous forest and the implications for carbon storage. Ecol. Appl. 12: 1261–1266.Google Scholar
  32. Oren R., Ellsworth D.S., Johnsen K.H., Phillips N., Ewers B.E., Maier C., Schäfer K.V.R., McCarthy H., Hendry G.E., McNulty S.G. and Katu C.G. 2001. Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-rich atmosphere. Nature 411: 469–472.Google Scholar
  33. Paul E.A. and Clark F.E. 1989. Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Pregitzer K.S., Zak D.R., Maziasaz J., Forest J.D., Curtis P.S. and Lussenhop J. 2000. Interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and soil-N availability on fine roots of Populus tremloides.Google Scholar
  35. Rogers H.H., Peterson C.M., McCrimmon J.N. and Cure J.D. 1992. Response of plant roots to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. Plant Cell Environ. 15: 749–752.Google Scholar
  36. Rowland A.P. and Roberts J.D. 1994. Lignin and cellulose fractionation in decomposition studies using acid-detergent fibre methods. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 25: 269–277.Google Scholar
  37. Strain B.R. 1985. Physiological and ecological controls on carbon sequestering in terrestrial ecosystems. Biogeochemistry 1: 219–232.Google Scholar
  38. Susfalk R.B. and Johnson D.W. 2002. Ion exchange resin based soil solution lysimeters and snowmelt collectors. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 33: 1261–1275.Google Scholar
  39. Tingey D.T., Johnson M.G., Phillips D.R., Johnson D.W. and Ball J.T. 1996. Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen on the synchrony of shoot and root growth in ponderosa pine. Tree Physiol. 16: 905–914.Google Scholar
  40. Torbert H.A., Prior S.A., Rogers H.H., Schlesinger W.H., Mullins G.L. and Runion R.B. 1996. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide in agroecosystems affects groundwater quality. J. Environ. Qual. 25: 720–726.Google Scholar
  41. Vance E.D., Brookes P.C. and Jenkinson D.J. 1987. An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Bio. Biochem. 19: 703–707.Google Scholar
  42. Velleman P. 1997. DataDesk Version 6.0 Statistics guide. Data Description, Inc., Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  43. Wullschleger S.D. and Norby R.J. 2001. Sap velocity and canopy transpiration for a 12-year-old sweetgum stand exposed to free-air CO2 enrichment. New Phytol. 150: 489–498.Google Scholar
  44. Yang J.E. and Skogley E.O. 1992. Diffusion kinetics of multinutrient accumulation by mixed-bed ion-exchange resin. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 56: 408–414.Google Scholar
  45. Zak D.R. Pregitzer K.S. Curtis P.S. Teeri J.A. Fogel R. and Randlett D.L. 1993. Elevated atmospheric CO2 and feedback between carbon and nitrogen cycles. Plant Soil 151: 105–117.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. Johnson
  • W. Cheng
  • J. D. Joslin
  • R. J. Norby
  • N. T. Edwards
  • D. E. Todd

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations