Advertisement

Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 13, Issue 13, pp 2453–2483 | Cite as

Floristic composition, structure, and diversity of four forest plots in the Sierra Maigualida, Venezuelan Guayana

  • Egleé L. Zent
  • Stanford Zent
Article

Abstract

A phytosociological study was carried out in four 1-ha forest plots in the Sierra Maigualida region, Venezuelan Guayana. Density, dominance, and frequency values were calculated as well as the species and family importance values (FIVs) in each plot. A total of 65 families, 232 genera and 533 species were represented in the 4 ha of forest. The number of stems ≥10 cm dbh varied from 355 to 563, the number of species from 133 to 191, the genera from 76 to 120, the families from 38 to 51, and the basal area from 20.56 to 40.83 m2 per hectare. Overall the most species rich family was Fabaceae (38 species), the most numerous in total stems was Burseraceae (165 individuals), and the most dominant in terms of basal area was Sapotaceae (1367.13 cm2). The most conspicuous families, as represented among the top five FIV, include Burseraceae in all four plots, Moraceae in three of the plots, and Sapotaceae in two plots. Less than 20% of the total inventory of species are represented in two or more plots. The percentages of species which are unique to a single plot range from 56 to 67%. The within-plot diversities recorded in the present study indicate that the Sierra Maiguailida harbors the richest forests thus far documented in Venezuelan Guayana. Meanwhile, the low between-plot similarity indices reinforce the notion that the species richness of this region is unusually high and suggest the need to extend collections and inventory studies.

Biodiversity plots Floristic composition Phytosociology Sierra Maigualida Species richness Structure and diversity Tropical forests Venezuelan Guayana 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aymard G., Elcoro S., Marín E. and Chaviel A. 1997. Caracterizacion estructural y florýstica en bosques de tierra rme de un sector del bajo Rýo Caura, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. In: Huber O. and Rosales J. (eds) Ecología de la cuenca del Rýo Caura,Venezuela.II.Estudios Especiales. Scientia Guaianae 7: 143–170.Google Scholar
  2. Aymard G., Cuello N. and Schargel R. 1998. Floristic composition, structure, and diversity in moist forest communities along the Casiquiare Channel, Amazonas State,Venezuela. In: Dallmeier F. and Comiskey J.A. (eds) Forest Biodiversity in North, Central and South America, and the Caribbean: Research and Monitoring. Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, UK, pp.495–506.Google Scholar
  3. Balee W. 1993. Indigenous transformation of Amazonian forests. L'Homme 126–128: 231–254.Google Scholar
  4. Balee W. 1994. Footprints of the Forest. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Berry P.E., Holst B.K. and Yatskievych K. (eds) 1995. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Volume 1: Introduction. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  6. Bevilacqua M., Cardenas L., Flores A.L., Hernandez L., Lares E., Mansutti A.et al. 2002. The state of Venezuela's forests: a case study of the Guayana region. A Global Forest Watch report. World Resources Institute and Fundacion Polar, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  7. Boom B.M. 1986. A forest inventory in Amazonian Bolivia. Biotropica 18: 287–294.Google Scholar
  8. Boom B.M. 1989. Useful plants of the Panare Indians of the Venezuelan Guayana. Advances in Economic Botany 8:57–76.Google Scholar
  9. Boom B.M. 1990. Flora and vegetation of the Guayana-Llanos ecotone in Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 64: 254–278.Google Scholar
  10. Bricenõ E.L., Balbas L. and Blanco J.A. 1997. Bosques ribereños del bajo Río Caura: vegetacion, suelos y fauna. In: Huber O. and Rosales J. (eds) Ecología de la cuenca del Río Caura, Venezuela. II. Estudios Especiales. Scientia Guaianae 7: 259–290.Google Scholar
  11. Campbell D.G. 1994. Scale and patterns of community structure in Amazonian forests. In: Edwards P.J., May R.M. and Webb R. (eds) Large-scale Ecology and Conservation Biology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford,,UK,pp.179–194.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell D.G., Daly D.C., Prance G.T. and Maciel U.N. 1986. Quantitative ecological inventory of Terra Firme and Varzea Tropical Forest on the Rio Xingu, Brazilian Amazon. Brittonia 38: 369–393.Google Scholar
  13. Castellanos H.G. 1998. Floristic composition and structure, tree diversity,and the relationship between floristic distribution and soil factors in El Caura Forest Reserve,southern Venezuela. In: Dallmeier F. and Comiskey J.A. (eds) Forest Biodiversity in North, Central and South America, and the Caribbean: Research and Monitoring. Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, UK, pp. 507–533.Google Scholar
  14. Catalan Castillo A., Canales H., Chesney L., Huber O., Cerdo J., Hidalgo R.et al. 1980. Inventario de los Recursos Forestales de la Reserva Forestal del Sipapo. Territorio Federal Amazonas. Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables. DGIIA/IC, Vol.2.Google Scholar
  15. Clark D.B. and Clark D.A. 1996. Abundance,growth and mortality of very large trees in neo-tropical lowland rain forest. Forest Ecology Management 80: 235–244.Google Scholar
  16. Colwell R.K. 1997. EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 5. User's guide and application published at http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/ estimates.Google Scholar
  17. Comiskey J.A., Dallmeier F. and Foster R. 1998. Forest structure and diversity in managed and unmanaged rainforest of Beni, Bolivia. In: Dallmeier F. and Comiskey J.A. (eds) Forest Biodiversity in North, Central and South America, and the Caribbean: Research and Monitoring. Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, UK, pp. 663–680.Google Scholar
  18. Crook M.J., Ennos A.R. and Banks J.R. 1997. The function of buttress roots:a comparative study of the anchorage systems of buttressed (Aglaia and Nephelium ramboutan species) and non-buttressed (Mallotus wrayi ) tropical trees. Journal of Experimental Botany 48: 1703–1716.Google Scholar
  19. CVG-TECMIN Informe de avance NB–20–5. Clima, geología, geomorfología, suelos, vegetacion. Proyecto Inventario de los Recursos Naturales de la Region Guayana, CVG-Tecnica Minera C.A., Ciudad Bolývar,Venezuela (in press).Google Scholar
  20. De Oliveira A.A. and Mori S.A. 1999. A central Amazonian terra rme forest I. High tree species richness on poor soils. Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 129–1244.Google Scholar
  21. Dezzeo N. and Briceño E. 1997. La vegetacion en la cuenca del Rýo Chanaro:medio Caura. In: Huber O. and Rosales J. (eds) Ecología de la cuenca del Rýo Caura, Venezuela. II. Estudios Especiales. Scientia Guaianae 7: 365–386.Google Scholar
  22. Dezzeo N., Maquirino P., Berry P.E. and Aymard G. 2000. Principales tipos de bosque en el area de San Carlos de Río Negro, Venezuela. In: Huber O. and Medina E. (eds) Flora y vegetacionde San Carlos de Río Negro y alrededores, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. Scientia Guaianae 11: 15–36.Google Scholar
  23. Duivenvoorden J.F. and Lips J.M. 1998. Mesoscale patterns of tree species diversity in Colombian Amazonia. In: Dallmeier F. and Comiskey J.A. (eds) Forest Biodiversity in North,Central and South America, and the Caribbean: Research and Monitoring. Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, UK, pp. 535–549.Google Scholar
  24. Faber-Langendoen D. and Gentry A.H. 1991. The structure and diversity of rain forests at Bajo Calima, Choco Region, western Colombia. Biotropica 23: 2–11.Google Scholar
  25. Ferreira L.V. and Prance G.T. 1998. Species richness and floristic composition in four hectares in the Jau National Park in upland forests in central Amazonia. Biodiversity and Conservation 7: 1349–1364.Google Scholar
  26. Ferreira L.V. and Prance G.T. 1999. Ecosystem recovery in terra rme forests after cutting and burning: A comparison on species richness, floristic composition and forest structure in the Jau National Park, Amazonia. Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 130:97–110.Google Scholar
  27. Galeano G., Cediel J. and Pardo M. 1998. Structure and floristic composition of a one-hectare plot of wet forest at the Pacific Coast of Choco, Colombia. In: Dallmeier F. and Comiskey J.A. (eds) Forest Biodiversity in North, Central and South America, and the Caribbean: Research and Monitoring. Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, UK,pp.551–568.Google Scholar
  28. Garcia P. (compiler)1987. Proyecto Inventario de los Recursdos Naturales de la Region Guayana (PIRNRG). Manual Metodologico (Version Preliminar). CVG-TECMIN, Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  29. Gentry A.H. 1988a. Tree species richness of upper Amazonian forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 85:156–159.Google Scholar
  30. Gentry A.H. 1988b. Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environmental and geographical gradients. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 75:1–34.Google Scholar
  31. Greig-Smith P. 1983. Quantitative Plant Ecology. 3rd edn. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.Google Scholar
  32. Hartshorn G. 1978. Tree falls and tropical forest dynamics. In: Tomlinson P.B. and Zimmermann M.H. (eds) Tropical Trees as Living Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp.617–638.Google Scholar
  33. Heltsche J. and Forrester N.E. 1983. Estimating species richness using the jackknife procedure. Biometrics 39:1–11.Google Scholar
  34. Huber O. 1995a. Geographical and physical features. In: Berry P.E., Holst B.K. and Yatskievych K. (eds) Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Vol.1. Introduction. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, pp.1–61.Google Scholar
  35. Huber O. 1995b. Vegetation. In: Berry P.E., Holst B.K. and Yatskievych K. (eds) Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Vol.1. Introduction. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, pp.97–160.Google Scholar
  36. Huber O. 1995c. Conservation of the Venezuelan Guayana. In: Berry P.E., Holst B.K. and Yatskievych K. (eds) Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Vol.1. Introduction. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, pp.193–218.Google Scholar
  37. Huber O. 1995d. Venezuelan Guayana Vegetation Map. Ediciones Tamandua, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  38. Huber O. and Alarcon C. 1988. Mapa de vegetacion de Venezuela. 1:2.000.000. Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables and The Nature Conservancy, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  39. Huber O. and Rosales J. (eds) 1997. Ecología de la cuenca del Río Caura, Venezuela. II. Estudios Especiales. Scientia Guaianae 7.Google Scholar
  40. Huber O., Rosales J. and Berry P.E. 1997. Estudios Botanicos en las Montañas Altas de la Cuenca del Rýo Caura (Estado Bolívar, Venezuela). In: Huber O. and Rosales J. (eds) Ecología de la cuenca del Río Caura, Venezuela. II. Estudios Especiales. Scientia Guaianae 7: 441–468.Google Scholar
  41. Johnston M. and Gilman M. 1995. Tree population studies in low diversity forests, Guyana. I. Floristic composition and stand structure. Biodiversity and Conservation 4: 339–362.Google Scholar
  42. Knab Vispo C., Berry P. and Rodriguez G. 1999. Floristic and structural characterization of a lowland rain forest in the lower Caura watershed, Venezuelan Guayana. Acta Botanica Venezuelica 22: 325–359.Google Scholar
  43. Laurance W.F., Ferreira L.V., Rankin-de Merona J.M. and Hutchings R.W. 1998. Influence of plot shape on estimates of tree diversity and community composition in central Amazonia. Biotropica 30:662–665.Google Scholar
  44. Lieberman D., Lieberman M., Peralta R. and Hartshorn G.S. 1996. Tropical forest structure and composition on a large-scale gradient in Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 84:137–152.Google Scholar
  45. Lopez-Zent E. 1998. A creative perspective of environmental impacts by native amazonian human populations. Interciencia 23:232–240.Google Scholar
  46. Magurran A.E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  47. Marín E. and Chaviel A. 1996. Vegetacion:Bosques de tierra rme. In: Rosales J. and Huber O. (eds) Ecoloíýa de la Cuenca del Río Caura,Venezuela. I. Caracterizacion General. Scientia Guaianae 6:60–65.Google Scholar
  48. MARNR-ORSTOM 1988. Atlas del Inventario de Tierras del Territorio Federal Amazonas. MARNR-DGSIIA, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  49. Milliken W. 1998. Structure and composition of one hectare of central amazonian terra rme forest. Biotropica 30:530–537.Google Scholar
  50. Mori S.A. and Boom B.M. 1987. The Forest. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 44: 9–29.Google Scholar
  51. Mori S.A., Boom B.M., De Carvalho A.M. and Dos Santos T.S. 1983. Southern Bahian moist forests. The Botanical Review 49:155–232.Google Scholar
  52. Odum E.P. 1993. Ecology and Our Endangered Life-Support Systems. Sinaur Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  53. Peters C.M. 1996. Beyond nomenclature and use:a review of ecological methods for ethnobotanists. Advances in Economic Botany 10:241–276.Google Scholar
  54. Pitman N.C.A., Terborgh J., Silman M.R. and Nuñez V.P. 1999. Tree species distributions in an upper Amazonian forest. Ecology 80:2651–2661.Google Scholar
  55. Pitman N.C.A., Terborgh J.W., Silman M.R., Nuñez V.P., Neill D.A., Ceron C.E.et al. 2001. Dominance and distribution of tree species in upper Amazonian terra rme forests.Ecology 82: 2101–2117.Google Scholar
  56. Prance G.T., Balee W., Boom B.M. and Carneiro R.L. 1987. Quantitative ethnobotany and the case for conservation in Amazonia. Conservation Biology 1:296–310.Google Scholar
  57. Rankin-de-Merona J.M., Prance G.T., Hutchings R.W., Freitas da Silva M., Rodrigues W.A. and Uehling M.E. 1992. Preliminary results of a large-scale tree inventory of upland rain forest in the central Amazon. Acta Amazonica 22:493–534.Google Scholar
  58. Rosales J. 1996. Vegetacion:Bosques ribereños. In: Rosales J. and Huber O. (eds) Ecologíadela Cuenca del Río Caura, Venezuela. I. Caracterizacion General.Scientia Guaianae 6:66–69.Google Scholar
  59. Rosales J., Knab-Vispo C. and Rodríguez G. 1997. Bosques ribereños del bajo Caura entre el Salto-Para y los Raudales de la Mura:su clasi cacion e importancia en la cultura Ye 'kwana. In: Huber O. and Rosales J. (eds) Ecología de la cuenca del Río Caura, Venezuela. II. Estudios Especiales. Scientia Guaianae 7:171–213.Google Scholar
  60. Salas L., Berry P.E. and Goldstein I. 1997. Composicion y estructura de una comunidad de arboles grandes en el valle del Río Tabaro,Venezuela:una muestra de 18.75 ha. In: Huber O. and Rosales J.(eds) Ecologýa de la cuenca del Rýo Caura,Venezuela.II.Estudios Especiales.Scientia Guaianae 7:291–308.Google Scholar
  61. Stergios B., Aymard G. and Cuello N. 1993. Composición florística en bosques ricos en caucho (Hevea spp.)de la Cuenca del Río Casiquiare, Estado Amazonas.Informe Tecnico, Convenio UNELLEZ-Guanare, Guanare, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  62. Terborgh J. and Andresen E. 1998. The composition of Amazonian forests:patterns at local and regional scales. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14:645–664.Google Scholar
  63. ter Steege H., Sabatier D., Castellanos H., Van Andel T., Duivenvoorden J., Adalardo de Oliveira A. et al. 2000. An analysis of the floristic composition and diversity of Amazonian forests including those of the Guiana Shield. Journal of Tropical Ecology 16:801–828.Google Scholar
  64. ter Steege H., Pitman N., Sabatier D., Castellanos H., van der Hout P., Daly D.C. et al. 2003. A spatial model of tree α-diversity and tree density for the Amazon. Biodiversity and Conservation. 12:2255–2277.Google Scholar
  65. Uhl C. and Murphy P.G. 1981. Composition, structure, and regeneration of a tierra rme forest in the Amazon Basin of Venezuela. Tropical Ecology 22:219–237.Google Scholar
  66. Valencia R., Balslev H. and Paz y Miño G. 1994. High tree alpha-diversity in Amazonian Ecuador. Biodiversity and Conservation 3:21–28.Google Scholar
  67. Valencia R., Balslev H., Palacios W., Neill D., Josse C., Tirado M.et al. 1998. Diversity and family composition of trees in different regions of Ecuador:a sample of 18 one-hectare plots. In: Dallmeier F. and Comiskey J.A. (eds) Forest Biodiversity in North,Central and South America, and the Caribbean: Research and Monitoring. Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, UK, pp.569–584.Google Scholar
  68. Whittaker R.H. 1965. Dominance and diversity in land plant communities. Science 147:250–260.Google Scholar
  69. Zent E.L. 1999. Etnobotanica Hot: Explorando las interacciones entre las plantas y el ser humano en el Amazonas Venezolano. Ph.D.Thesis, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.Google Scholar
  70. Zent E.L., Zent S. and Fernandez A. Floristic Inventory of the Sierra Maigualida,Venezuelan Guayana. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden (in preparation).Google Scholar
  71. Zent S. and Zent E.L. 2004. Ethnobotanical convergence,divergence,and change among the Hotï. In: Carlson T. and Maffi L.(eds) Ethnobotany and Conservation of Biocultural Diversity. Advances in Economic Botany 15:37–78.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Egleé L. Zent
    • 1
  • Stanford Zent
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de AntropologíaInstituto Venezolano de Investigaciones CientíficasCaracasVenezuela

Personalised recommendations