Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 6, Issue 9, pp 1245–1257 | Cite as

Translocation of carnivores as a method for managing problem animals: a review

  • JOHN D. C. LINNELL
  • RONNY AANES
  • JON E. SWENSON
  • JOHN ODDEN
  • MARTIN E. SMITH
Article

Abstract

Translocation of individual carnivores has been a standard management tool for decades in North America and southern Africa in response to livestock depredation and other conflict behaviours. As carnivore populations across Europe begin to increase it is expected that management problems will also increase. Before translocation becomes established as a management tool in Europe its success needs to be reviewed. In general, there has been very little follow-up of translocated animals. Almost no data exist on the subsequent levels of damage after translocation. Large carnivores have shown a consistent ability to return to the site of capture over distances of up to 400 km. Even those individuals that do not succeed in returning home roam over very large distances, best measured in units of hundreds of kilometres. Very few individuals remain at the release sites. Survival of translocated animals has occasionally been shown to be poor, often as a result of the large movements. In general, there needs to be a large area (hundreds or thousands of square kilometres) without conflict potential where the individuals can be released for the strategy to work. When such areas are not available, management efforts should concentrate on reducing conflict potential, or, where this is not practical, lethal control.

translocation carnivores management livestock depredation re-introduction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anon (1995) Yellowstone National Park wolf reintroduction general update. Wolf! Magazine 1995 19–23.Google Scholar
  2. Armistead, A.R., Mitchell, K. and Connolly, G.E. (1994) Bear relocations to avoid bear/sheep conflicts. Proc. Vert. Pest Conf. 16, 31–5.Google Scholar
  3. Banci, V. (1994) Wolverine. In The Scientific Basis for Conserving Forest Carnivores, American Marten, Fisher, Lynx and Wolverine (L.F. Ruggiero, K.B. Aubry, S.W. Buskirk, L.J. Lyon and W.J. Zielinski, eds) pp. 99–123. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-254.Google Scholar
  4. Bangs, E.E. and Fritts, S.H. (1996) Reintroducing the gray wolf to central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 24, 402–13.Google Scholar
  5. Bangs, E.E., Fritts, S.H., Harms, D.R., Fontaine, J.A., Jimenez, M.D., Brewster, W.G. and Niemeyer, C.C. (1995) Control of endangered gray wolves in Montana. In Ecology and Conservation of Wolves in a Changing World (L.N. Carbyn, S.H. Fritts and D.R. Seip, eds) pp. 127–34, Alberta Canada: Canadian Circumpolar Institute.Google Scholar
  6. Beeman, L.E. and Pelton, M.R. (1976) Homing of black bears in the Great Smoky Mountains. Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage. 3, 87–96.Google Scholar
  7. Belden, R.C. and Hagedorn, B.W. (1993) Feasibility of translocating panthers into northern Florida. J. Wildl. Manage. 57, 388–97.Google Scholar
  8. Blanchard, B.M. and Knight, R.R. (1995) Biological consequences of relocating grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. J. Wildl. Manage. 59, 560–5.Google Scholar
  9. Boshoff, A.F. and Vernon, C.J. (1998) The translocation and homing ability of problem eagles. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 18, 38–40.Google Scholar
  10. Bowyer, R.T. and Brown, R.D. (1988) Translocation of animals in Alaska. In Translocation of Wild Animals (L. Nielsen and R.D. Brown, eds) pp. 10–20. Wisconsin: Wisconsin Humane Society.Google Scholar
  11. Brannon, R.D. (1987) Nuisance grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, translocation in the Greater Yellowstone Region. Can. Field. Nat. 101, 569–75.Google Scholar
  12. Breitenmoser, U. and Breitenmoser-Würsten, C. (1990) Status, conservation needs and reintroduction of the lynx (Lynx lynx) in Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, Nature and Environment Series No. 45.Google Scholar
  13. Clarkson, P.L. and Marley, J.L. (1995) Preventing and managing black and grizzly bears problems in agricultural and forested area in North America. Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage. 9, 306–22.Google Scholar
  14. Cobb, S. (1981) The leopard — problems of an overabundant, threatened, terrestrial carnivore. In Problems in Management of Locally Abundant Wild Mammals (P.A. Jewell and S. Holt, eds) pp. 181–92. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Comly, L.M. and Vaughan, M.R. (1994) Survival and reproduction of translocated Virginia black bears. Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage. 9, 428–37.Google Scholar
  16. Davis, M.R. (1983) Post-release movements of introduced marten. J. Wildl. Manage. 47, 59–66.Google Scholar
  17. Ebedes, H. (1970) The use of Sernylan as an immobilising agent and anaesthetic for wild carnivorous mammals in South West Africa. Madoqua 2, 19–25.Google Scholar
  18. Estes, J.A., Rathbun, G.B. and VanBlaricom, G.R. (1993) Paradigms for managing carnivores: the case of the sea otter. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 65, 307–20.Google Scholar
  19. Fies, M.L., Martin, D.D. and Blank, G.T. (1987) Movements and rates of return of translocated Virginia black bears. Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage. 8, 369–72.Google Scholar
  20. Fritts, S.H. (1982) Wolf depredation on livestock in Minnesota. US Department of the Interior, US Fish Wildlife Service, Resource Publication 145, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  21. Fritts, S.H. (1992) Reintroductions and translocations of wolves in North America: an analysis. In Wolves for Yellowstone? A report to the United States Congress 4: Research and analysis, 3-5–3-31.Google Scholar
  22. Fritts, S.H., Paul, W.J. and Mech, L.D. (1984) Movements of translocated wolves in Minnesota. J. Wildl. Manage. 48, 709–21.Google Scholar
  23. Fritts, S.H., Paul, W.J. and Mech, L.D. (1985) Can relocated wolves survive? Wildl. Soc. Bull. 13, 459–63.Google Scholar
  24. Fritts, S.H., Paul, W.J. Mech, L.D. and Scott, D.P. (1992) Trends and management of wolf-livestock conflicts in Minnesota. US Department of the Interior, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Resource Publication 181, 1–27.Google Scholar
  25. Garshelis, D.L. and Garshelis, J.A. (1984) Movements and management of sea otters in Alaska. J. Wildl. Manage. 48, 665–78.Google Scholar
  26. Griffith, B. and Scott, J.M. (1993) Animal translocation and potential disease transmission. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 24, 2231–6.Google Scholar
  27. Gunson, J. and Markam, R. (1993) Management plan for black bears in Alberta. Alberta Forestry, Lands and Wildlife, Fish and Wildlife Division, Wildlife Management Planning Series 10, 1–115.Google Scholar
  28. Gunther, K.A. (1994) Bear management in Yellowstone National Park. Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage. 9, 549–61.Google Scholar
  29. Henshaw, R.E. and Stephonson, R.O. (1974) Homing in the gray wolf (Canis lupus). J. Mammal. 55, 234–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jackson, R., Ahlborn, G., Ale, S., Gurung, D., Gurung, M. and Yadav, U.R. (1994) Reducing livestock predation in the Nepalese Himalaya: case of the Anapurna Conservation Area. Draft Report prepared for US Agency for International Development, Biosystems Analysis Inc., California.Google Scholar
  31. Kaczensky, P. (1996) Livestock-carnivore conflicts in Europe. Wildbiologische Gesellschaft München e.V. Ettal, Germany Unpublished Report. 1106 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Koch, T., Whitelaw, A. and Asher, V. (1995) Idaho wolf update. Wolf! Magazine 1995 18–21.Google Scholar
  33. Linnell, J.D.C., Smith, M.E., Odden, J., Kaczensky, P. and Swenson, J.E. (1996) Strategies for the reduction of carnivore — livestock conflicts: a review. NINA Oppdragsmelding 443, 1–115.Google Scholar
  34. McArthur, K.L. (1981) Factors contributing to effectiveness of black bear transplants. J. Wildl. Manage. 45, 102–10.Google Scholar
  35. Massopust, J.L. and Anderson, R.K. (1984) Homing tendencies of translocated nuisance black bears in northern Wisconsin. Proc. East. Workshop Black Bear Manage. Res. 7, 66–73.Google Scholar
  36. Matchett, M.R. and O'Gara, B.W. (1987) Methods of controlling golden eagle depredation on domestic sheep in southwestern Montana. J. Raptor Res. 21, 85–94.Google Scholar
  37. Mertzanis, G., Amaslidis, T., Giannatos, G., Karachalios, T. and Papaioannou, H. (1995) First relocation and monitoring of a problem bear in Greece. International Bear News 4, 13.Google Scholar
  38. Miller, S.D. and Ballard, W.B. (1982) Homing of transplanted Alaskan brown bears. J. Wildl. Manage. 46, 869–76.Google Scholar
  39. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (1995) Conservation of grizzly bears in British Columbia, background report. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks 1–70.Google Scholar
  40. Norton, P.M. (1986) Ecology and conservation of the leopard in the mountains of the Cape Province. Cape Department of Nature and Environmental Conservation.Google Scholar
  41. Phillips, R.L., Cummings, J.L. and Berry, J.D. (1991) Responses of breeding golden eagles to relocation. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 19, 430–34.Google Scholar
  42. Powell, R.A. (1979) Mustelid spacing patterns: variations on a theme by Mustela. Z. Tierpsychol. 50, 153–65.Google Scholar
  43. Powell, R.A. and Zielinski, W.J. (1994) Fisher. In The Scientific Basis for Conserving Forest Carnivores, American Marten, Fisher, Lynx and Wolverine in the Western United States (L.F. Ruggiero, K.B. Aubry, S.W. Buskirk, L.J. Lyon and W.J. Zielinski, eds) pp. 38–73, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-254.Google Scholar
  44. Proulx, G., Kolenosky, A.J., Badry, M.J., Drescher, R.K., Seidel, K. and Cole, P.J. (1994) Post-release movements of translocated fishers. In Martens, Sables, and Fishers: Biology and Conservation (S.W. Buskirk, A.S. Harestad, M.G. Raphael and R.A. Powell, eds) pp. 197–203. London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Rabinowitz, A.R. (1986) Jaguar predation on domestic livestock in Belize. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14, 170–4.Google Scholar
  46. Rabinowitz, A.R. and Nottingham, B.G. (1986) Ecology and behaviour of the jaguar (Panthera onca) in Belize, Central America. J. Zool. Lond. 210, 149–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rauer, G. (1995) First experiences with the release of 2 female brown bears in the Alps of eastern Austria. Int. Conf. Bear. Res. Manage. 9, 469–78.Google Scholar
  48. Reading, R.P. and Clark, T.W. (1996) Carnivore reintroductions: an interdisciplinary examination. In Carnivore Behavior, Ecology and Evolution (J.L. Gittleman, ed.) pp. 296–336. London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Riley, S.J., Aune, K., Mace, R.D. and Madel, M. (1994) Translocation of nuisance grizzly bears in northwestern Montana. Int. Conf. Bears Res. Manage. 9, 567–74.Google Scholar
  50. Rogers, L.L. (1984) Homing by black bears and other large mammals, Proc. East. Workshop Black Bear Manage. Res. 7, 76–7.Google Scholar
  51. Rogers, L.L. (1986) Effects of translocation distance on frequency of return by adult black bears. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14, 76–80.Google Scholar
  52. Rogers, L.L. (1988) Homing tendencies of large mammals: a review. In Translocation of Wild Animals (L. Nielsen, and R.D. Brown, eds) pp. 76–92. Wisconsin: Wisconsin Humane Society.Google Scholar
  53. Ruth, T.K., Logan, K.A., Sweanor, L.L., Smith, J.F. and Temple, L.J. (1993) Evaluating mountain lion translocation. Final Report — Hornocker Wildlife Research Institute 1–46.Google Scholar
  54. Ruth, T.K., Logan, K.A., Sweanor, L.L., Hornocker, M.G., and Temple, L.J. (1995) Orientation, movements, and survival of translocated cougars in New Mexico. Fifth Mountain Lion Workshop 23.Google Scholar
  55. Saberwal, V.K., Gibbs, J.P., Chellam, R. and Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1994) Lion-human conflict in the Gir Forest, India. Conserv. Biol. 8, 501–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Seidensticker, J., Lahiri, J.E., Das, K. and Wright, A. (1976) Problem tiger in the Sunderbans. Oryx 11, 167–273.Google Scholar
  57. Slough, B.G. (1989) Movements and habitat use by transplanted marten in the Yukon Territory. J. Wildl. Manage. 53, 991–7.Google Scholar
  58. Slough, B.G. (1994) Translocations of American martens: an evaluation of factors in success. In Martens, Sables, and Fishers: Biology and Conservation (S.W. Buskirk, A.S. Harestad, M.G. Raphael and R.A. Powell, eds) pp. 165–78. London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Smith, K.G. and Clark, J.D. (1994) Black bears in Arkansas: characteristics of a successful translocation. J. Mamm. 75, 309–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Smith, A.T. and Peacock, M.M. (1990) Conspecific attraction and the determination of metapopulation colonization rates. Conserv. Biol. 4, 320–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stander, P.E. (1990) A suggested management strategy for stock raiding lions in Namibia. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 20, 37–43.Google Scholar
  62. van der Meulen, J.H. (1977) Notes on the capture and translocation of stock raiding lions in northeastern and northwestern Rhodesia. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 7, 15–17.Google Scholar
  63. Wabakken, P. and Maartmann, E. (1994) Sluttrapport for bj¢rn-sauprosjektet i Hedmark 1990–1993. NINA forskningsrapport 058, 1–49.Google Scholar
  64. Waite, B.C. and Phillips, R.L. (1994) An approach to controlling golden eagle predation on lambs in South Dakota. Proc. Vert. Pest Conf. 16, 28–30.Google Scholar
  65. Yalden, D.W. (1993) The problems of reintroducing carnivores. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 65, 289–304.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • JOHN D. C. LINNELL
    • 1
  • RONNY AANES
    • 1
  • JON E. SWENSON
    • 1
  • JOHN ODDEN
    • 2
  • MARTIN E. SMITH
    • 3
  1. 1.Norwegian Institute for Nature ResearchTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Hedmark College, EvenstadKoppangNorway
  3. 3.North-Trøndelag CollegeSteinkjerNorway

Personalised recommendations