Acute Toxicity and Anesthetic Effects of Clove Oil in Penaeus semisulcatus under Various Water Quality Conditions
Acute toxicity and anesthetic effects of clove oil were studied in P. semisulcatus (1.8–2.1 g body weight). The EC50 1-h (the concentration effective for 50% of test animals), LC50 1-h (the concentration lethal to 50% of test animals after 1 h) and LC50 24-h (the concentration lethal to 50% of test animals after 24 h) were calculated at concentrations of 25, 130 and 30 mg/l, respectively, at 30°C, salinity 40 ppt, pH 8.6 and dissolved oxygen >6 mg/l. Generally, with increasing concentrations of clove oil, the times required for sedation and anesthesia decreased, while the recovery times increased. At concentrations 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/l under temperature of 30°C and salinity of 40 ppt, the times required for sedation were 6 ± 0.2, 2.5 ± 0.3, 2 ± 0.08 and 0.5 ± 0.08 min, while times required for complete recovery were calculated to be 4.5 ± 0.3, 5.5 ± 0.17, 6.5 ± 0.25 and 11 ± 0.38 min, respectively. Also, the times required for deep anesthesia were 20 ± 1, 5 ± 0.5, 3 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.5 min in the above concentrations, while the times required for complete recovery were 10 ± 1, 11 ± 1.5, 14 ± 2.2 and 16 ± 3 min, respectively. Furthermore, considering the times to sedation, deep anesthesia and recovery at different temperatures of 20°C, 25°C, 30°C and 35°C and salinities of 25, 30, 35, 40 and 48 ppt; the combinations of salinity plus temperature and clove oil concentration plus salinity had the greatest and the least effects.
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