Experimental & Applied Acarology

, Volume 30, Issue 1–3, pp 225–231 | Cite as

Passion Fruit Green Spot Virus Vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Passion Fruit in Brazil

  • E.W. KitajimaEmail author
  • J.A.M. Rezende
  • J.C.V. Rodrigues


Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2–5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves. The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by necrotic lesions that encircle the stems and kill the plant. In severe cases, entire orchards of a few hectares in size have been completely destroyed. The disease was always preceded by heavy infestations of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues (fruits, leaves, and stems) consistently revealed the presence of short, bacilliform particles (50–70 nm × 100–120 nm) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the presence of a dense viroplasm in the cytoplasm. This cytopathic effect has been found in several other Brevipalpus-transmitted or associated viruses and is classified as a cytoplasmic type of disease. Experimental reproduction of the leaf and stem symptoms was achieved by transferring B. phoenicis collected from affected field passion flower plants onto healthy plants. The evidence supports a viral etiology for the disease and the agent was named passion fruit green spot virus. Its relationship with other B. phoenicis related viruses continues to be studied. The disease was also found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Sergipe, Rondonia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and in the Federal District. Use of one or more of the following acaricides (hexythiazox, fenbutatin-oxide, propargite, quinomethionate, or dicofol) has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease.

passion fruit green spot virus passion flower Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Brevipalpus phoenicis cytoplasmic type cytopathology 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • E.W. Kitajima
    • 1
    Email author
  • J.A.M. Rezende
    • 1
  • J.C.V. Rodrigues
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agrícola, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”Universidade de São PauloPiracicaba, SPBrazil
  2. 2.Entomology and Nematology DepartmentUniversity of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Research and Education CenterLake AlfredUSA

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