Brevipalpus californicus, B. obovatus, B. phoenicis, and B. lewisi (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): a Review of their Biology, Feeding Injury and Economic Importance

  • Carl C. Childers
  • J. Victor French
  • Jose Carlos V. Rodrigues
Article

Abstract

The genus Brevipalpus includes most of the economically important species of Tenuipalpidae. Many Brevipalpus species reproduce by theletokous parthenogenesis while other species reproduce by male fertilization of female eggs. Previous researchers have determined that Brevipalpus californicus (Banks), B. obovatus Donnadieu, and B. phoenicis (Geijskes) females were haploid with two chromosomes. The life cycle and developmental times for these three species are reviewed. Longevity of each Brevipalpus species is two to three times greater than corresponding longevities of various tetranychid mites. Brevipalpus mites inject toxic saliva into fruits, leaves, stems, twigs, and bud tissues of numerous plants including citrus. Feeding injury symptoms on selected plants include: chlorosis, blistering, bronzing, or necrotic areas on leaves by one or more Brevipalpus mites. Premature leaf drop occurred on ‘Robinson’ tangerine leaves in Florida (USA). Leaf drop was observed in several sweet orange and grapefruit orchards in Texas (USA) that were heavily infested with Brevipalpus mites feeding on the twigs, leaves, and fruit. Initial circular chlorotic areas appear on both sweet orange and grapefruit varieties in association with developing populations of Brevipalpus mites in Texas. These feeding sites become progressively necrotic, darker in color, and eventually develop into irregular scab-like lesions on affected fruit. Russeting and cracking of the fruits of other plant hosts are reported. Stunting of leaves and the development of Brevipalpus galls on terminal buds were recorded on sour orange, Citrus aurantium L., seedlings heavily infested with B. californicus in an insectary. The most significant threat posed by these mites is as vectors of a potentially invasive viral disease called citrus leprosis.

false spider mites flat mites Citrus tea pistachio 

References

  1. Arias Giralda, A. and Nieto Calderon, J. 1985. The ‘scab mite’ Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor, a new pest of grapevine in Spain: overwintering, colonization of the vines, and survey in the region of Guarena (Ibadajoz). Boletin del Servicio de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion. Fitopatologica 11(2): 193–203.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, E.W. 1949. The genus Brevipalpus (Acarina: Pseudoleptidae). Am. Midland Nat. 2: 350–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, E.W. and Tuttle, D.M. 1987. The false spider mites of Mexico (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). US Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. No. 1706.Google Scholar
  4. Banerjee, B. 1971. Scarlet mite in Darjeeling. Two and a Bud 18: 26–28.Google Scholar
  5. Beavers, J.B. and Hampton, R.B. 1971. Growth, development, and mating behavior of the citrus red mite (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 64: 804–806.Google Scholar
  6. Buchanan, G.A., Bengston, M. and Exley, E.M. 1980. Population growth of Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae) on grapevines. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 31: 957–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chagas, C.M., Kitajima, E.W. and Rodrigues, J.C.V. 2003. Coffee ringspot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in coffee. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 30: 203–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chagas, C.M., Rossetti, V., Colariccio, A., Lovisolo, O., Kitajima, E.W. and Childers, C.C. 2001. Brevipalpus mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) as vectors of plant viruses. In: Acarol. Proc. 10th Int. Cong., R.B. Halliday, D.E. Walter, H.C. Proctor, R.A. Norton and M.J. Colloff (eds), pp. 369–375. CSIRO Pub., Canberra, Australia, 1998.Google Scholar
  9. Chandra, B.K.N. and ChannaBasavanna, G.P. 1974. Biology of guava scarlet mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). In: Acarol. Proc. 4th Int. Congr., pp. 167–176.Google Scholar
  10. Chiavegato, L.G. 1986. Biologia do acaro Brevipalpus phoenicis em citros. Pesqui. Agropecu. Bras. 21(8): 813–816.Google Scholar
  11. Childers, C.C. 1994. Feeding injury to ‘Robinson’ tangerine leaves by Brevipalpus mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Florida and evaluation of chemical control on citrus. Fla. Entomol. 77: 265–271.Google Scholar
  12. Childers, C.C., Kitajima, E.W., Welbourn, W.C., Rivera, C. and Ochoa, R. 2001. Brevipalpus mites on citrus and their status as vectors of citrus leprosis. Manejo Integrado de Plagas (Costa Rica). 60: 66–70.Google Scholar
  13. Childers, C.C., Rodrigues, J.C.V. and Welbourn, W.C. 2003a. Host plants of Brevipalpus californicus, B. obovatus, and B. phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and their potential involvement in the spread of one or more viruses. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 30: 29–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Childers, C.C., Rodrigues, J.C.V., Derrick, K.S., Achor, D.S., French, J.V., Welbourn, W.C., Ochoa, R. and Kitajima, E.W. 2003b. Citrus leprosis and its status in Florida and Texas: past and present. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 30: 181–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cranham, J.E. 1966. Insect and mite pests of tea in Ceylon and their control. Monographs on Tea Production in Ceylon. No. 6. The Tea Res. Inst., Talawakelle, Ceylon.Google Scholar
  16. Das, S.C. 1983. Some basics points in mite control on tea. Two and a Bud 30: 26–28.Google Scholar
  17. Dean, H.A. and Maxwell, N.P. 1967. Spotting of grapefruit as associated with false spider mites. Proc. Rio Grande Valley Hort. Soc. 21: 35–45.Google Scholar
  18. Denmark, H.A. 1975. Al false spider mite Brevipalpus phoenicis damage to Aphelandra. Fla. Dept. Agric. Div. Plant Ind. Circ. No. 154.Google Scholar
  19. Denmark, H.A. 1978. A mite Brevipalpus russulus in Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. Div. Plant Ind. Circ. No. 188.Google Scholar
  20. Denmark, H.A. 1984. Brevipalpus mites found on Florida citrus. Fla. Dept. Agric. Cons. Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Entomol. Circ. 69.Google Scholar
  21. Ebeling, W. and Pence, R.J. 1949. New pomegranate mite. Calif. Agric. 3(6): 11, 14.Google Scholar
  22. Elmer, H.S. and Jeppson, L.R. 1957. Biology and control of the citrus flat mite. J. Econ. Entomol. 50(5): 566–570.Google Scholar
  23. Evans, G.A., Cromroy, H.A. and Ochoa, R. 1993. The Tenuipalpidae of Honduras (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). Fla. Entomol. 76: 126–155.Google Scholar
  24. French, J.V. and Rakha, M.A. 1994. False spider mite: damage and control on Texas citrus. Subtrop. Plant Sci. 46: 16–19.Google Scholar
  25. Frezzi, M.S. 1940. La lepra explosiva del narnjo-Investigaciones realizadoas per el laboratorio de patologia de Bella Vista (Corrientes). Bol. Fruiticult. Hort. (Buenos Aires) 5: 1–16.Google Scholar
  26. Goyal, M., Sadana, G.L. and Sharma, N.K. 1985. Influence of temperature on the development of Brevipalpus obovatus (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Entomon 10: 125–129.Google Scholar
  27. Green, E. 1900. Tea mites, and some suggested experimental work against them. Ceylon. Circ. 17, Ser. 1: 202–203.Google Scholar
  28. Guerere, P. and Quiros-Gonzalez, M. 2000. Escalas cualitativas del dano hecho por el acaro plano, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Tenuipalpidae), a frutos del guayabo (Psidium guajava L.). Rev. Fac. Agron. 17: 471–481.Google Scholar
  29. Gupta, S.K., Sidhu, A.S. and Singh, G. 1971. Occurrence of a tenuipalpid mite on citrus in the Punjab and its control. Indian J. Entomol. 33(1): 30–33.Google Scholar
  30. Hamilton, C.C. 1953. New acaricides against mites attacking nursery plants. J. Econ. Entomol. 46(3): 442–445.Google Scholar
  31. Haramoto, F.H. 1969. Biology and control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Hawaii Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 68.Google Scholar
  32. Helle, W. and Bolland, H.R. 1972. Artificial induction of males in a thelytokous mite species by means of X-rays. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 15: 395–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jagadish, P.S., Nageshachandra, B.K. and ChannaBasavanna, G.P. 1983. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) as a pest of coconut, Cocus nucifera L. Acarol. Newsl. 13(4).Google Scholar
  34. Jeppson, L.R., Baker, E.W. and Keifer, H.H. 1975. Mites Injurious to Economic Plants. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  35. Jones, E.L. 1967. Pests of the Grapevine. Agric. Gazette, (New South Wales) 78: 708–714.Google Scholar
  36. Kennedy, J.S., Van Impe, G., Dance, T.H. and Lebrun, P.H. 1996. Demecology of the false spider mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 120: 493–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kitajima, E.W., Rezende, J.A.M. and Freitas, J.C. 1996. Two types of particles associated with lesions induced by Brevipalpus mites in different plant hosts. VII. Encontro Nacional de Virologia. S. Lourenco, MG. 275 (abstract).Google Scholar
  38. Kitajima, E.W., Rezende, J.A.M., Rodrigues, J.C.V., Chiavegato, L.G., Piza Jr., C.T. and Morozini, W. 1997. Green spot of passion fruit, a possible viral disease associated with infestation by the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. Fitopatol. Bras. 22: 555–559.Google Scholar
  39. Kitajima, E.W., Rezende, J.A.M. and Rodrigues, J.C.V. 2003a. Passion fruit green spot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in passion fruit in Brazil. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 30: 225–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kitajima, E.W., Chagas, C.M. and Rodrigues, J.C.V. 2003b. Brevipalpus-transmitted plant virus and virus-like diseases: cytopathology and some recent cases. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 30: 135–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Knorr, L.C. 1968. Studies on the etiology of leprosis in citrus. Proc. Conf. Int. Organ. Citrus Virol. 4: 332–341.Google Scholar
  42. Knorr, L.C. and Denmark, H.A. 1970. Injury to Citrus by the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. J. Econ. Entomol. 63: 1996–1998.Google Scholar
  43. Knorr, L.C. and Malaguti, G. 1960. Halo scab-Result of an association of Elsinoe fawcetti and Brevipalpus phoenicis destructive to sour-orange seedlings. Plant Dis. Rept. 44(8): 662–663.Google Scholar
  44. Knorr, L.C., Denmark, H.A. and Burnett, H.C. 1968. Occurrence of Brevipalpus mites, leprosis, and false leprosis on citrus in Florida. Fla. Entomol. 51: 11–17.Google Scholar
  45. Kondo, H., Maeda, T. and Tamada, T. 2003. Orchid fleck virus: Brevipalpus californicus transmission, biological properties, and genome structure. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 30: 215–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lal, L. 1978. Biology of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Tenuipalpidae: Acarina). Acarologia 19: 97–101.Google Scholar
  47. Lal, L. and Mukharji, S.P. 1979. Observation of the injury symptoms caused by phytophagous mites. Zool. Beiträge 25: 13–17.Google Scholar
  48. Landwehr, V.R. and Koehler, C.S. 1980. Brevipalpus pini and eriophyoid mite injury on Monterey pine. J. Econ. Entomol. 73: 675–678.Google Scholar
  49. Lewis, H.C. 1949. Injury to citrus by Tenuipalpus mites. Calif. Citrogr. 29(4): 87.Google Scholar
  50. Manglitz, G.R. and Cory, E.N. 1953. Biology and control of Brevipalpus australis. J. Econ. Entomol. 46: 116–119.Google Scholar
  51. McGregor, E.A. 1916. The privet mite in the South. J. Econ. Entomol. 9: 556–561.Google Scholar
  52. Michelbacher, A.E. 1956. Spider mites on walnuts. Calif. Agric. 10(7): 4, 14.Google Scholar
  53. Morishita, F.S. 1954. Biology and control of Brevipalpus inornatus (Banks). J. Econ. Entomol. 47: 449–456.Google Scholar
  54. Moutia, L.A. 1958. Contribution to the study of some phytophagous acarina and their predators in Mauritius. Bull. Entomol. Res. 49(1): 59–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Muma, M.H. 1975. Mites associated with citrus in Florida. Univ. Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 640A.Google Scholar
  56. Ochoa, R. 1986. Brevipalpus salasi, a new species from Costa Rica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Int. J. Acarol. 12: 155–157.Google Scholar
  57. Ochoa, R., Aguilar, H. and Vargas, C. 1994. Phytophagous mites of Central America: an illustrated guide. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 234 pp.Google Scholar
  58. Oomen, P.A. 1982. Studies on population dynamics of the scarlet mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis, a pest of tea in Indonesia. Med. Landbouwhogeschool 82–1. Wageningen.Google Scholar
  59. Perrot, V. 2002. Haploid all the way: a new style of asexuality revealed in animals. BioEssays 24.2: 114–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pettersson, M.L. 1981. Leaf drop of Schlumbergera sp. caused by Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu. Vaxtskyddsnotiser 45: 170–172 (abstract).Google Scholar
  61. Pijnacker, L.P., Ferwerda, M.A., Bolland, H.R. and Helle, W. 1980. Haploid female parthenogenesis in the false spider mite Brevipalpus obovatus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Genetica 51: 211–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Reis, P.R., de Souza, J.C., de Sousa, E.O. and Teodoro, A. 2000. Spatial distribution of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in coffee plants (Coffea arabica L.). Anais da Soc. Entomol. Brasil 29: 177–183 (abstract).Google Scholar
  63. Rice, R.E. and Weinberger, G.B. 1981. Citrus flatmite on pistachios in California. Calif. Agric. 25–26.Google Scholar
  64. Ripa, R. and Rodriguez, F. 1999. Plagas de citricos, sue enemigos naturals y manejo. Instituto De Investigaciones Agropecuarias. Min. Agric. Santiago, Chile.Google Scholar
  65. Rodrigues, J.C.V. 1995. Leprose dos citros. Cito-histopatologia, transmissibilidae e relacao com o vector Brevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). MS Dissertation, CENA/USP, Piracicaba, 79 pp.Google Scholar
  66. Rodrigues, J.C.V. 2000. Relacoes patogeno-vetor-planta no sistema leprose dos citros. PhD Thesis, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil.Google Scholar
  67. Rodrigues, J.C.V. and Machado, M.A. 1999. Notes on a probable respiratory apparatus in eggs of Brevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Int. J. Acarol. 25: 231–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rodrigues, J.C.V., Nogueira, N.L., Freitas, D.S. and Prates, H.S. 1997. Virus-like particles associated with Brevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) vector of citrus leprosis virus. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 26: 391–395.Google Scholar
  69. Rodrigues, J.C.V., Kitajima, E.W., Childers, C.C. and Chagas, C.M. 2003. Citrus leprosis virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in citrus in Brazil. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 30: 161–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rousset, F., Bouchon, D., Pintureau, B., Juchault, P. and Solignac, M. 1992. Wolbachia endosymbionts responsible for various alterations of sexuality in arthropods. Proc. R. Soc. London. Series B. 250: 91–98.Google Scholar
  71. Saito, Y. 1979. Comparative studies on life histories of three species of spider mites (Acarina: Tetranychidae) Oligonychus ununguis, Panonychus citri, and Tetranychus urticae, pests of farm crops, and trees. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 14: 83–94.Google Scholar
  72. Schwartz, A. 1977. Flat mites on citrus. Farming in South Africa. Dept. Agric. Tech. Serv. Rep. So. Africa. Citrus Series H.13.Google Scholar
  73. Smith Meyer, M.K.P. 1979. The Tenuipalpidae (Acari) of Africa with keys to the world fauna. Entomol. Memoir No. 50. Dept. Agric. Tech. Serv. Plant Prot. Res. Inst, Republic of South Africa.Google Scholar
  74. Smith Meyer, M.K.P. 1981. Mite pests of crops in southern Africa. Plant Prot. Res. Inst. Sci. Bull. 397. Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  75. Sudoi, V., Khaemba, B.M. and Wanjala, F.M.E. 2001. Nitrogen fertilization and yield losses of tea to red crevice mite (Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes)) in the eastern highlands of Kenya. Int. J. Pest. Mgmt. 47: 207–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Trinidade, M.L.B. and Chiavegato, L.G. 1990. Colonizacão por Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, 1875, Brevipalpus californicus (Banks, 1904) e Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) em variedades citricas. Laranja 11(1): 227–240.Google Scholar
  77. Trinidade, M.L.B. and Chiavegato, L.G. 1994. Caracterizacão biologica dos acaros Brevipalpus obovatus D., B. californicus e B. phoenicis G. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 23(2): 189–195.Google Scholar
  78. Vergani, A.R. 1945. Transmision y naturaleza de la “lepra explosiva” del naranjo. Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nacion Buenos Aires Instituto Sanidad Vegetal, Series A. 5: 1–11.Google Scholar
  79. Weeks, A., Marec, F. and Breeuwer, J.A.J. 2001. A mite species that consists entirely of haploid females. Science 292: 2479–2482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl C. Childers
    • 1
  • J. Victor French
    • 2
  • Jose Carlos V. Rodrigues
    • 1
  1. 1.Entomology and Nematology DepartmentUniversity of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Research and Education CenterLake AlfredUSA
  2. 2.Citrus CenterTexas A&M University-KingsvilleWeslacoUSA

Personalised recommendations