Advertisement

Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 60, Issue 1, pp 71–76 | Cite as

Germplasm resources of Vitellaria paradoxa based on variations in fat composition across the species distribution range

  • Steven Maranz
  • Zeev Wiesman
  • Johan Bisgaard
  • Giorgio Bianchi
Article

Abstract

The karité (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner) is an economically important African tree with significant but little studied variation across its broad distribution range. Differences in economically important fat characteristics were determined for 42 karité populations in 11 countries. The results showed very high variability in all measured parameters both within and between populations. Kernel fat content range is generally 20–50%. Fatty acid composition is dominated by stearic (25–50%) and oleic (37–62%) acids. The variable relative proportions of these two fatty acids produces major differences in karité butter consistency across the species distribution range. The principal triglycerides are stearic-oleic-stearic (13–46%) and stearic-oleic-oleic (16–31%). Ugandan karité fat is liquid and requires fractionation to obtain a butter. West African karité butter is more variable, with soft and hard consistencies produced within the same local populations. The hardest butters are produced on the Mossi Plateau in Burkina Faso and northern Ghana. The implications of distinctive population characteristics as germplasm resources for the chocolate and cosmetic industries are discussed.

Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) Fat content Fatty acid Karité Shea butter 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adu-Ampomah Y., Amponsah J.D. and Yidana J.A. 1995. Collecting germplasm of sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa) in Ghana. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 102: 37–38.Google Scholar
  2. AOAC 1996. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 16th edition, Volume II. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Maryland.Google Scholar
  3. Bailey A.E. 1979. Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. Vol. 1, 4th Edition, Swern D. (Ed.) John Wiley, New York, 841 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Beckett S. 2000. The Science of Chocolate. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 175 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Collinson C. and Zewdie-Bosuener A. 1999. Shea butter markets: Their implications for Ghanaian shea butter processors and exporters. Project A0772, Report No. 2403, 20 pp.Google Scholar
  6. COVOL 2002. The Shea Project. http://www.pnumen.com/covol/nilotica.htmlGoogle Scholar
  7. Hall J.B., Aebischer D.P., Tomlinson H.F., Osei-Amaning E. and Hindle J.R. 1996. Vitellaria paradoxa: a monograph. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, U.K., 105 pp.Google Scholar
  8. FAOSTAT 2000. FAO Statistical Databases. http://www.apps.fao.org/Google Scholar
  9. Karlshamns 2002. The Shea Butter Family. http://www.karlshamns.com/Google Scholar
  10. Minifie B.W. 1989. Chocolate, Cocoa, and Confectionery: Science and Technology. 3rd Edition, Chapman and Hall, New York, 904 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Ruyssen B. 1957. Le karité au Soudan, Premiere Partie, Aire géographique du karité en Afrique et au Soudan. L'Agronomie Tropicale XI(2): 143–171.Google Scholar
  12. Saint Sauveur A. de 1999. Indigenous management practices of farmed parklands. In: Teklehaimanot Z. (Ed.) Improved Management of Agroforestry Parkland Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa, First Annual Report, 1st October 1998-30th September 1999, pp. 61–78. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, UK.Google Scholar
  13. Storgaard S. 2000. New vegetable fats. Sweetec 2(4/00): 16–21.Google Scholar
  14. IUPAC 1979. Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives, 6th edition, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 170 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Von Maydell H.J. 1990. Arbres et Arbustes du Sahel: leurs caracteristiques et leurs utilisations. Margraf, Weikersheim, Germany, 531 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Maranz
    • 1
  • Zeev Wiesman
    • 1
  • Johan Bisgaard
    • 2
  • Giorgio Bianchi
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Agriculture and Applied BiologyBen Gurion University of the NegevBe'er ShevaIsrael
  2. 2.Aarhus OliefabrikAarhusDenmark
  3. 3.Istituto Sperimentale per la ElaiotecnicaCitta S. Angelo, PescaraItaly

Personalised recommendations