Foundations of Physics Letters

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 439–471 | Cite as

On the final state of spherical gravitational collapse

  • Abbas Mitra


Following our recent finding [1] that, for the final state of continued spherical gravitational collapse of sufficiently massive bodies, the final gravitational mass of the fluidMƒ → 0, we show that for a physical fluid the eventual value of 2Mƒ/Rƒ → 1 rather than 2Mƒ/Rƒ2Mƒ/Rƒ< 1 (the speed of light c = 1 and the gravitational constantG = 1), indicating the approach to a zero-mass black hole. We also point out that, as the final state is approached, the curvature components tend to blow up; also the proper radial distancel and the proper time (measured along a radial worldline) Τ → ∞, indicating that actually the singularity is never attained. We also identify that the final state may correspond to the local 3-speed attaining eitherV = 0 orV → c, even though invariant circumference contraction speedU =dR/dΤ → 0. Nonetheless, at a finite observation epoch, such Eternally Collapsing Objects (ECOs) may have a local speed of collapseV≪c and the lab frame speed of collapse may be negligible because of high surface gravitational redshift. However, if quantum back reaction in the strong gravity regime would cause a phase transition of the form pressurep = - ρ, where ρ is the density of the collapsing fluid, it may be possible to have static Ultra Compact Objects (ûCOs) of arbitrary high mass [2]. While supposed Black Holes have no intrinsic magnetic field, ECOs or UCOs are likely to possess strong intrinsic magnetic fields, and we point out that there are already some tentative evidence for existence of such intrinsic magnetic fields in some Black Hole Candidates [3,4]. For the benefit of the readers who may not have gone through Paper I, we also include here the summary of the same. It clearly shows that the central result of Paper I can be derived even without knowing the meaning of the nomenclatureV or without imposing any of property ofV such as whetherV < 1 or not. In addition, we consolidate the same result from other physical considerations too.

Key words

gravitational collapse eternally collapsing object ultra compact object 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abbas Mitra
    • 1
  1. 1.Nuclear Research LaboratoryBhabha Atomic Research CenterMumbaiIndia

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