Advertisement

Child Psychiatry and Human Development

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 127–146 | Cite as

Paternal Alcohol Abuse: Relationship Between Child Adjustment, Parental Characteristics, and Family Functioning

  • Bente Storm Mowatt HauglandEmail author
Article

Abstract

This study examines possible risk factors associated with child adjustment in a sample of children with alcohol abusing fathers in Norway (N = 37). Factors included are socio-economic status, severity of the fathers' alcohol abuse, parental psychological problems, and family functioning. Children of alcohol abusing fathers were found to have more adjustment problems assessed by CBCL compared to a general population sample. The findings further suggest that child adjustment in families with paternal alcohol abuse is the result of an accumulation of risk factors rather than the effects of the paternal alcohol abuse alone. Both general environmental risk factors (psychological problems in the fathers, family climate, family health and conflicts) and environmental factors related to the parental alcohol abuse (severity of the alcohol abuse, the child's level of exposure to the alcohol abuse, changes in routines and rituals due to drinking) were related to child adjustment. The results indicate the need to obtain both parents' assessments of child adjustment, as the fathers' assessment was associated with different risk factors compared to the mothers'.

children of alcoholics child adjustment family functioning parental psychological problems 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bennett LA, Wolin SJ, Reiss D: Cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems among school-age children of alcoholic parents. Am J Psychiat 145: 185-190, 1988.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rolf JE, Johnson JL, Israel E, Baldwin J, Chandra A. Depressive affect in schoolaged children of alcoholics. Brit J Addict 83: 841-848, 1988.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tubman JG: A pilot study of school-age children of men with moderate to severe alcohol dependence: Maternal distress and child outcomes. J Child Psychol Psychiat 34: 729-741, 1993.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ervin CS, Little RE, Streissguth AP, Beck DE: Alcoholic fathering and its relation to child's intellectual development: A pilot investigation. Alcohol: Clin Exp Res 8: 362-365, 1984.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gabrielli WF, Mednick SA Intellectual performance in children of alcoholics.J Nerv Ment Dis 171: 444-447, 1983.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    McGarth CE, Watson AL, Chassin L: Academic achievement in adolescent children of alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 60: 18-26, 1999.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Poon E, Ellis DA, Fitzgerald HE, Zucker RA: Intellectual, cognitive, and academic performance among sons of alcoholics during the early school years: Differences related to subtypes of familial alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24, 1020-1027, 2000.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Earls F, Reich W, Jung KG, Cloninger CR: Psychopathology in children of alcoholic and antisocial parents. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 12: 481-487, 1988.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jacob T, Leonard K:Psychosocial functioning in children of alcoholic fathers, depressed fathers and control fathers. J Stud Alcohol 47: 373-380, 1986.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Puttler LI., Zucker RA, Fitzgerald HE, Bingham RC: Behavioral outcome among children of alcoholics during the early and middle childhood years: Familial subtype variations. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 22: 1962-1972, 1998.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clair D, Genest M: Variables associated with the adjustment of offspring of alcoholic fathers. J Stud Alcohol 48: 345-355, 1987.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fitzgerald HE, Sullivan LA, Ham HP, Zucker RA, Bruckel S, Scneider AM: Predictors of behavior problems in three-year-old sons of alcoholics: Early evidence for the onset of risk. Child Dev 64: 110-123, 1993.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Knowles EE, Schroeder DA: Personality characteristics of sons of alcohol abusers. J Stud Alcohol 51: 142-147, 1990.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Churchill JC, Brodia JP, Nicholson NL: Locus of control and self-esteem of adult children of alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 51: 373-376, 1990.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Johnson JL, Rolf JE: Cognitive functioning in children from alcoholic and non-alcoholic families. Brit JAddict 83: 849-857, 1988.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wright DM, Heppner PP: Coping among nonclinical college-age children of alcoholics. J Couns Psychol 38: 465-472, 1991.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jacob T, Krahn GL, Leonard K:Parent-child interactions in families with alcoholic fathers. J Consult Clin Psych 59: 176-181, 1991.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Johnson SL, Jacob T: Psychosocial functioning in children of alcoholic fathers. Psychol Addict Behav 9: 101-113, 1995.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Velleman R, Orford J: The importance of family discord in explaining childhood problems in the children of problem drinkers. Addict Res 1: 39-57, 1993.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cronkite RC, Finney JW, Nekich J, Moos RH: Remission among alcoholic patients and family adaptation to alcoholism: a stress and coping perspective. In: Alcohol and the family. Research and clinical perspectives, ed. Collins RL, Leonard KE, Searls JS: The Guilford Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Seilhamer RA, Jacob T: Family factors and adjustment of children of alcoholics. In: Children of alcoholics, ed. Windle M, Searls JS: The Guilford Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bennett LA, Wolin SJ, Reiss D: Deliberate family process: a strategy for protecting children of alcoholics.Brit J Addict 83: 821-829, 1988.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Curran P J, Chassin L: A longitudinal study of parenting as a protective factor for children of alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 57: 305-313, 1996.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moos RH, Billings AG: Children of alcoholics during the recovery process: Alcoholic and matched control families. Addict Beh 7: 155-163, 1982.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Reich W, Earls F, Powell J: A comparison of the home and social environments of children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents. Brit J Addict 83: 831-839, 1988.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Werner EE: Resilient offspring of alcoholics; A longitudinal study from birth to age 18. J Stud Alcohol 36: 1395-1420, 1986.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sher JK: Children of alcoholics. A critical appraisal of theory and research. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Windle M, Searls JS: Children of alcoholics. Critical Perspectives. New York: The Guilford Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nøvik TS: Validity of the Child Behavior Checklist in a Norwegian sample. Eur Child Adolescent Psychiat 8: 247-254, 1999.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goodwin DW, Schulsinger F, Moller N, Hermansen L, Winokur G, Guze SB: Drinking problems in adopted and non-adopted sons of alcoholics. Arch Gen Psychiat 31: 164-169, 1974.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hansson K, Cederblad M: Familjediagnostik. Utpröving av olika skattningsskalor för familje-diagnostik. Del 2. [Family diagnosis: Evaluation of different ratingscales for family diagnosis. Part 2]. Fokus paºFamilien 17: 150-162, 1989.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Achenbach TM: Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry, 1991.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Christensen HB, Bilenberg N: Behavioural and emotional problems in children of alcoholic mothers and fathers.Eur Child Adolescent Psychiat 9: 219-226,2000.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rubio-Stipec M, Bird H, Canino G, Bravo M, Alegria M: Children of alcoholic parents in the community. J Stud Alcohol 52: 78-88, 1991.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    El-Sheik M, Flanagan E: Parental problem drinking and children's adjustment: Family conflict and parental depression as mediators and moderators of risk. J Abnorm Child Psych 29: 417-432, 2001.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Loukas A, Fitzgerald HE, Zucker RA, von Eye A: Parental alcoholism and co-occurring antisocial behavior: Prospective relationships to externalizing behavior problems in their young sons. J Abnorm Child Psych 29: 91-106, 2001.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nøvik TS: Validity and use of the Child Behavior Checklist in Norwegian children and adolescents. An epidemiological and clinical study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oslo, Norway, 1999.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shaffer D, Gould MS, Brasic J, Ambrosini P, Fisher P, Bird H, Aluwahlia S: A children's global assessment scale (CGAS). Arch Gen Psychiat 40, 1228-1231, 1983.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bird HR, Canino G, Rubio-Stipec M, Ribera JC: Further measures of the psychometric properties of the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Arch Gen Psyciatry 44: 821-824, 1987.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Statistisk Sentralbyrå: Standard Classification of Socioeconomic status. Oslo, 1984.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cahalan D: Problem drinkers; a national survey. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1970.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Løberg T: Alcohol misuse and neuropsychological deficits in men. J Stud Alcohol 41, 119-128, 1980.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Steinglass P: The Impact of alcoholism on the family. Relationship between degree of alcoholism and psychiatric symptomatology. J Stud Alcohol 42: 288-303, 1981.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Derogatis LR: SCL-90-R: Administration, scoring and procedures. Manual-II. 2. ed. Towson, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research, 1992.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Beavers WR, Hampson RB: Successful Families: Assessment and Treatment. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Beavers WR, Hampson RB, Hulgus YF: Beavers Systems Model Manual. Dallas, TX: Southwest Family Institute, 1990.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Drumm M, Carr A, Fitzgerald M: The Beavers, McMaster and Circumplex clinical rating scales: a study of their sensitivity, specificity and discriminant validity. J Fam Therapy 22:225-238, 2000.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hansson K: Familjeklimat. En adjektivlista for familjediagnostik [Family climate. An adjective checklist for family diagnosis]. Psykologi i tillämpning 7, Lunds Universitet, 1989.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Steinglass P, Bennett LA, Wolin SJ, Reiss D: The alcoholic family.New York: Basic Books Inc., Publishers, 1987.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wolin SJ, Bennett LA, Noonan DL, Teitelbaum MA: Disrupted family rituals; a factor in the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism. J Stud Alcohol 41: 199-214,1980.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Larzelere RE, Mulaik SA: Single-sample tests for many correlations. Psychol Bull 84, 557-569, 1977.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Christensen A, Sullaway M, Margolin G: Interparental agreement on child behavior problems. Psychol Assess 4:419-425, 1992.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kovacs M, Devlin B: Internalizing disorders in childhood. J Child Psychol Psychiat 39: 47-63, 1998.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    MacPherson PSR, Stewart SH, McWilliams LA: Parental problem drinking and anxiety disorder symptoms in adult offspring. Examining the mediating role of anxiety sensitivity components. Addict Behav 26: 917-934, 2001.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zucker RA, Ellis DA, Bingham CR, Fitzgerald HE: The development of alcoholic subtypes. Risk variation among alcoholic families during early childhood years. Alcohol Health Res W 20: 46-54, 1996.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nylander I, Rydelius PA: Comparison between children of alcoholic fathers from excellent versus poor social conditions. Acta Paed Scand 71: 809-813, 1982.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dodge KA, Pettit GS, Bates JE: Socialization mediators of the relation between socioeconomic status and child conduct problems. Child Dev 65: 649-665, 1994.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Earls F: Oppositional-defiant and conduct disorders. In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Modern Approaches 3.edn., ed. Rutter M, Taylor E, Hersov L: Blackwell Science, 1994.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Haugland BSM, Havik OE: Correlates of family competence in families with paternal alcohol abuse. Psychol Rep 83:867-880, 1998.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Finn PR, Sharkansky EJ, Viken R, West TL, Sandy J, Buffered GM: Heterogeneity in the families of sons of alcoholics: The impact of familial vulnerability type on offspring characteristics. J Abnorm Psychol 106: 26-36, 1997.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ellis DA, Zucker RA, Fitzgerald HE: The role of family influences in development and risk. Alcohol Health Res W 21: 218-226, 1997.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cooper ML, Peirce R, Tidwell MCO: Parental drinking problems and adolescent offspring substance use. Moderating effects of demographic and familial factors. Psychol Addict Behav 9: 36-52, 1995.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Drake RE, Vaillant GE: Predicting alcoholism and personality disorder in a 33-year longitudinal study of children of alcoholics.Brit J Addict 83: 799-807, 1988.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Menees MM, Segrin C: The specifity of disrupted processes in families of adult children of alcoholics. Alcohol Alcoholism 35, 361-367, 2000.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Durlak JA: Common risk and protective factors in successful prevention programs. Am J Orthopsychiat 68: 512-520, 1998.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Krestan JA, Bepko C: On lies, secrets, and silence: the multiple levels of denial in addictive families. In: Secrets in Families and Family Therapy. ed. E. Imber-Black E: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1993.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Seilhamer RA, Jacob T, Dunn NJ: The impact of alcohol consumption on parentchild relationships in families of alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol54: 189-198, 1993.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Timko C, Kaplowitz MS, Moos RH: Children's health and child-parent relationships as predictors of problem-drinking mothers' and fathers' long term adaptation. J Subt Abuse 11: 103-121, 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical PsychologyUniversity of Bergen, Christiesgate 12BergenNorway

Personalised recommendations