Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 94, Issue 1–2, pp 25–38 | Cite as

Observations of Variability in Cosmic Rays

  • G.A. Bazilevskaya
Article

Abstract

Cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the atmosphere at altitudes below 55–60 km. This circumstance, together with the fact that cosmic ray flux modulation closely mirrors the solar activity time history, makes cosmic rays a good candidate as a possible mediator in the solar variability – climate relationship. The observed cosmic ray flux variations are described with the aim of emphasizing the features which may be useful in the search of correlation between cosmic rays and atmospheric phenomena.

Keywords

Atmosphere Solar Activity Time History Activity Time Flux Variation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bazilevskaya, G. A., Krainev, M. B., Stozhkov, Yu. I., Svirzhevskaya, A. K., and Svirzhevsky, N. S.: 1991, ‘Long-Term Soviet Program for the Measurement of Ionizing Radiation in the Atmosphere’, J. Geomag. Geoelectr. Suppl. 43, 893–900.Google Scholar
  2. Bazilevskaya, G. A. and Svirzhevskaya, A. K.: 1998, ‘On the StratosphericMeasurements of Cosmic Rays’, Space. Sci. Rev. 85, 431–521.Google Scholar
  3. Bazilevskaya, G. A., Krainev, M. B., Makhmutov, V. S., Sladkova, A. I., Storini, M., and Flueckiger, E.: 1998, ‘The Gnevyshev Gap in Cosmic Ray Physics’, in: J. Medina (ed): rayos cosmicos 98, Proc. 16th European Cosmic Ray Symposium, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala, Spain, 83–86.Google Scholar
  4. Beer, J.: 2000, ‘Long Term, Indirect Indices of Solar Variability’. Space Sci. Rev., this volume.Google Scholar
  5. Charakhchyan, A. N.: 1964, ‘Investigation of Stratosphere Cosmic Ray Intensity Fluctuations Induced by Processes on the Sun’, Soviet Physics Uspekhi 7(3), 358–374.Google Scholar
  6. Charakhchyan, A. N., Bazilevskaya, G. A., Stozhkov, Yu. I., and Charakhchyan, T. N.: 1976, ‘Cosmic Rays in the Stratosphere and in the Near-Earth Space During 19th and 20th Cycles of Solar Activity’, Trudy FIAN, Nauka, Moscow, 88, 3–50, (in Russian).Google Scholar
  7. Fisk, L. A. and Wenzel, K.-P., et al.:1998, ‘Global Processes that determine Cosmic Ray Modulation’, Space Sci. Rev. 83, 179–214.Google Scholar
  8. Golenkov, A. E., Svirzhevskaya, A. K., Svirzhevsky, N. S., and Stozhkov, Yu. I.: 1990, ‘Cosmic Ray Latitude Survey in the Stratosphere During the 1987 Solar Minimum’, Proc. 21st Intern. Cosmic Ray Conf. Adelaide, 7, 14–17.Google Scholar
  9. GOST, 1986, Galactic Cosmic Rays. Energy Spectra. Gosudarstvenny Standard 25645.122-85-25645.125-85, Moscow, 1986 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  10. Hatton, C. J.: 1971, ‘The Neutron Monitor’. In: J. G. Wilson and S. A. Wouthuysen, (eds.):Processes in Elementary Particle and Cosmic Ray Physics, North-Holland Publ. Comp., Amsterdam-London, 3–100.Google Scholar
  11. Makhmutov, V. S., Bazilevskaya, G. A., Podgorny, A. I., Stozhkov, Yu.I., Svirzhevsky, N. S.: 1995, ‘The precipitation of electrons into the Earth's atmosphere during 1994’, Proc. 24th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conf. Rome, 4, 1114–1117.Google Scholar
  12. Neher, H. V.: 1967, ‘Cosmic Ray Particles That Changed from 1954 to 1958 to 1965’, J. Geophys. Res. 72(5), 1527–1539.Google Scholar
  13. Neher, H. V.: 1971, ‘Cosmic Rays at High Latitudes and Altitudes Covering Four Solar Maxima’, J. Geophys. Res. 76(7), 1637–1651.Google Scholar
  14. Simpson, J. A.: 1948, ‘The Latitude Dependence of Neutron Densities in the Atmosphere as a Function of Altitude’, Phys. Rev. 73, 1389–1391.Google Scholar
  15. Simpson, J. A., Fonger, W. H., and Tremian, S. B.: 1953, ‘Cosmic Radiation Intensity-Time Variations and Their Origin: I. Neutron Intensity VariationMethod andMeteorological Factors’, Phys. Rev. 90, 934–950.Google Scholar
  16. Stoker, P. H.: 1994, ‘Relativistic Solar Proton Events’, Space Sci. Rev. 73, 327–385.Google Scholar
  17. Storini, M.: 1997, ‘Cosmic rays for solar-terrestrial physics’, Nuovo Cim. 20(6), 871–880.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • G.A. Bazilevskaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Lebedev Physical InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations