International Journal of Theoretical Physics

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 291–304

The Hidden Measurement Formalism: What Can Be Explained and Where Quantum Paradoxes Remain

  • Diederik Aerts

DOI: 10.1023/A:1026670802579

Cite this article as:
Aerts, D. International Journal of Theoretical Physics (1998) 37: 291. doi:10.1023/A:1026670802579


In the hidden measurement formalism that we havedeveloped in Brussels we explain quantum structure asdue to the presence of two effects; (a) a real change ofstate of the system under influence of the measurement and (b) a lack of knowledge abouta deeper deterministic reality of the measurementprocess. We show that the presence of these two effectsleads to the major part of the quantum mechanical structure of a theory describing a physicalsystem, where the measurements to test the properties ofthis physical system contain the two mentioned effects.We present a quantum machine, with which we can illustrate in a simple way how the quantumstructure arises as a consequence of the two effects. Weintroduce a parameter that measures the amount of lackof knowledge on the measurement process, and by varying this parameter, we describe acontinuous evolution from a quantum structure (maximallack of knowledge) to a classical structure (zero lackof knowledge). We show that for intermediate values of∈ we find a new type of structure that isneither quantum nor classical. We analyze the quantumparadoxes in the light of these findings and show thatthey can be divided into two groups: (1) The group(measurement problem and Schrodinger cat paradox) where theparadoxical aspects arise mainly from the application ofstandard quantum theory as a general theory (e.g., alsodescribing the measurement apparatus). This type of paradox disappears in the hiddenmeasurement formalism. (2) A second group collecting theparadoxes connected to the effect of nonlocality (theEinstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and the violation of Bell's inequalities). We show that theseparadoxes are internally resolved because the effect ofnonlocality turns out to be a fundamental property ofthe hidden-measurement formalism itself.

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© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1998

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  • Diederik Aerts

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