Space Science Reviews

, Volume 93, Issue 1–2, pp 79–105 | Cite as

Large Scale Modulation: View From the Earth

  • Anatoly Belov


The current knowledge and ideas, obtained from groundlevel observations and concerning the solar modulation of cosmic rays, are reviewed. The following topics are discussed: observations of the cosmic ray modulation at the Earth and main characteristics of the accumulated experimental data; manifestations of the solar magnetic cycle in cosmic rays; the effect of hysteresis and its relation to the size of the heliosphere; the rigidity spectrum of long-term cosmic ray variations; the influence of the sporadic effects on long-term modulation; long-term variations of cosmic ray anisotropy and gradients; the place of groundlevel observations in current studies of cosmic ray modulation and their future prospects. Particular consideration is given to the correlation of long-term cosmic ray variations with different solar-heliospheric parameters, and to empirical models of cosmic ray modulation.


Solar Wind Solar Activity Neutron Monitor Solar Wind Speed Heliospheric Current Sheet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anatoly Belov
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN)Russia
  2. 2.Troitsk, Moscow regionRussia

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