Space Science Reviews

, Volume 93, Issue 1–2, pp 79–105 | Cite as

Large Scale Modulation: View From the Earth

  • Anatoly Belov
Article

Abstract

The current knowledge and ideas, obtained from groundlevel observations and concerning the solar modulation of cosmic rays, are reviewed. The following topics are discussed: observations of the cosmic ray modulation at the Earth and main characteristics of the accumulated experimental data; manifestations of the solar magnetic cycle in cosmic rays; the effect of hysteresis and its relation to the size of the heliosphere; the rigidity spectrum of long-term cosmic ray variations; the influence of the sporadic effects on long-term modulation; long-term variations of cosmic ray anisotropy and gradients; the place of groundlevel observations in current studies of cosmic ray modulation and their future prospects. Particular consideration is given to the correlation of long-term cosmic ray variations with different solar-heliospheric parameters, and to empirical models of cosmic ray modulation.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahluwalia, H. S.: 1977, 'Long Term Changes in the Parameters of Cosmic Ray Daily Harmonics', Proc. 15th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 11, 298–303.Google Scholar
  2. Ahluwalia, H. S.: 1990, 'Solar Activity Cycles and Natural States of The Heliosphere', Proc. 21st Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 6, 5–8.Google Scholar
  3. Ahluwalia, H. S.: 1992, 'Cosmic Ray Modulation Near the Onset and Maximum Phases of The Solar Activity Cycle', Planetary Space Sci. 40, 1227–1234.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Bazilevskaya, G. A., Svirzhevsky, N. S., Stozhkov, Yu. I., Gorchakov, E. V., Okhlopkov, V. P., and Okhlopkova, L. S.: 1990, 'Modulation Features of Galactic Cosmic Rays in 1982', Proc. 21st Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 6, 29–32.Google Scholar
  5. Bazilevskaya, G. A. and Svirzhevskaya, A. E.: 1998, 'On the Stratospheric Measurements of the Cosmic Rays', Space Sci. Rev. 85, 431–521.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Belov, A.V.: 1987, 'The First Harmonic of Cosmic Ray Anisotropy in the Convection-Diffusion Model', Proc. 17th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 4, 119–122.Google Scholar
  7. Belov, A. V., Gushchina, R. T., and Sirotina, I. V.: 1995, 'Long Term Cosmic Ray Variations and Their Relation with Solar Activity Parameters', Proc. 24th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 4, 542–545.Google Scholar
  8. Belov, A. V., Gushchina, R. T., and Yanke, V. G.: 1997, 'Long-term Cosmic Ray Variations: Spectrum and Relation with Solar Activity', Proc. 25th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 2, 61–64.Google Scholar
  9. Belov, A. V., Veselovsky, I. S., Dmitriev, A. V., Gushchina, R. T., Panasenko, O. A., Suvorova, A. V., and Yanke, V. G.: 1999a, 'Relation of the Long Time Galactic Cosmic Ray Variations with the Magnetic Field on the Sun and in the SolarWind', Izvestia RAN, Ser. Phys. 62, 1606 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  10. Belov, A. V., Gushchina, R. T., and Yanke, V. G.: 1999b, 'On Connection of Cosmic Ray Long Term Variations with Solar-Heliospheric Parameters', Proc. 26th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 7, 175–178.Google Scholar
  11. Belov, A. V., Eroshenko, E. A., Oleneva, V. A., and Yanke, V. G.: 1999c, 'Anomalous Behavior of Cosmic Ray Anisotropy in the Last Minimum of the Solar Activity', Proc. 26th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 7, 268–271.Google Scholar
  12. Belov, A. V., Eroshenko, E. A., Heber, B., Yanke, V. G., Ferrando, P., Raviart, A., Bothmer, V., Dröge, W., Kunow, H., Müller-Mellin, R., Röhrs, K., Wibberenz, G., and Paizis, C.: 1999d, 'Latitudinal and Radial Variation of > 2 GeV/n Protons and Alpha-Particles in the Northern Heliosphere Ulysses COSPIN/KET and Neutron Monitor Network Observations', Adv. Space Res. 23, 443–447.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Bieber, J.W. and Chen, J.: 1991, 'Cosmic-Ray Diurnal Anisotropy, 1936-1988: Implications for Drift and Modulation Theories', Astrophys. J. 372, 301–313.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Bieber, J. W. and Evenson, P.: 1997, 'The Magnetic Cycle in Cosmic Ray Anisotropies', Proc. 25th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 2, 81–84.Google Scholar
  15. Burlaga, L. F., McDonald, F. B., and Ness, R.: 1993, 'Cosmic Ray Modulation and the Distant Heliomagnetic Field: Voyager 1 and 2 Observations from 1986 to 1989', J. Geophys. Res. 98, 1–11.ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Burlaga, L. F. and Ness, N. F.: 1998, 'Voyager Observations of the Magnetic Field in the Distant Heliosphere', Space Sci. Rev. 83, 105–121.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Cane, H. V.: 1993, 'Cosmic Ray Decreases and Magnetic Clouds', J. Geophys. Res. 98, 3509.ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Cane, H. V.: 2000, 'Coronal Mass Ejections and Forbush Decreases', Space Sci. Rev., this volume.Google Scholar
  19. Cane, H. V., Wibberenz, G., Richardson, I. G., and von Rosenvinge, T. T.: 1999a, 'Cosmic Ray Modulation and the Solar Magnetic Field', Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 565–568.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Cane, H. V., Wibberenz, G., and Richardson, I. G.: 1999b, in S. R. Habbal, R. Esser, J. V. Hollweg, and P. A. Isenberg (eds.), 'Solar Magnetic Field Variations and Cosmic Ray Modulation', Solar Wind Nine, AIP Conf. Proc. 471, pp. 99–106.Google Scholar
  21. Charakhchyan, A. N., Bazilevskaya, G. A., Stozhkov, Yu. I., and Charakhchyan, T. N.: 1980, 'Cosmic Rays in the Stratosphere and in the Near-Earth Space during 19th and 20th Cycles of the Solar Activity', Trudy FIAN 88, 3–50 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  22. Chirkov, N. P.: 1985, '11-and 22-year Variations of the Cosmic Ray Density and of the Solar Wind Speed', Proc. 19th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 4, 489–492.Google Scholar
  23. Crooker, N. U. and Cliver, E. W.: 1994, 'A Postmodern View of M-regions', J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23,383–23,390.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Dorman, L. I.: 1974, 'Cosmic Rays. Variations and Space Explorations', North-Holland Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  25. Dorman, L. I. and Gushchina, R. T.:, 1978, 'Relation of the 11-year and Annual Cosmic Ray Variations to the Heliolatitude Index of Activity According to the Spots and the Green Coronal Line', Proc. 15th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 3, 263–267.Google Scholar
  26. Dorman, I. V. and Dorman, L. I.:, 1967, 'Solar Wind Properties Obtained from the 11-Year Cosmic Ray Cycle', J. Geophys. Res. 72, 1,513.ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Dorman, L. I., Villoresi, G., Dorman, I. V., Iucci, N., and Parisi, M.: 1997a, 'High Rigidity Hysteresis Phenomenon and Dimension of Modulation Region in the Heliosphere in Dependence of Particle Rigidity', Proc. 25th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 2, 69–72.Google Scholar
  28. Dorman, L. I., Villoresi, G., Dorman, I. V., Iucci, N., and Parisi, M.: 1997b, 'Low Rigidity Hysteresis Phenomenon and Dimension of Modulation Region in the Heliosphere in Dependence of Particle Rigidity', Proc. 25th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 2, 73–76.Google Scholar
  29. Dröge, W.: 2000, 'Particle Scattering by Magnetic Fields', Space Sci. Rev., this volume.Google Scholar
  30. Duldig, M: 2000, 'Muon Observation', Space Sci. Rev., this volume.Google Scholar
  31. Elliot, H.: 1952, in J. G. Wilson and S. A. Wouthyusen (eds.), 'The Variations of Cosmic Ray Intensity', Progress in Cosmic Ray Physics, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, pp. 453–514.Google Scholar
  32. Fisk, L. A., Forman, M. A., and Axford, W. I.: 1971, 'Solar Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays 3. Implications of the Compton-Getting Coefficient', J. Geophys. Res. 78, 995–1006.ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Fisk, L. A. et al.: 1998, 'Global Processes that Determine Cosmic Ray Modulation', Space Sci. Rev. 83, 179–214.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Forbush, S. E.: 1969, 'Variation with a Period of Two Solar Cycles in the Cosmic Ray Diurnal Anisotropy and the Superposed Variations Correlated with Magnetic Activity', J. Geophys. Res. 74, 3451–3468.ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Fox, P., McIntosh, P., and Wilson, P. R.: 1998, 'Coronal Holes and the Polar Field Reversals', Solar Phys. 177, 375–393.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Fujii, Z. and McDonald, F. B.: 1997, 'Studies of the Radial Intensity Gradients of Galactic Cosmic Rays (1972–1995)', J. Geophys. Res. 102, 24,201.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Gleeson, L. J. and Axford, W. I.: 1967, 'Cosmic Rays in the Interplanetary Medium', Astrophys. J. 149, L115–L118.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Hatton, C. J. and Carmichael, H.: 1964, 'Experimental Investigation of the NM-64 Neutron Monitor', Canadian J. Phys. 42, 2443–2472.Google Scholar
  39. Heber, B. et al.: 1997, 'Latitudinal and Radial Variation of >2 GeV Protons Derived by Ulysses COSPIN/KET and Neutron Monitor Network Observations', Proc. 25th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 2, 85–88.Google Scholar
  40. Hedgecock, P. C.: 1975, 'Measurements of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field in Relation to the Modulation of Cosmic Rays', Solar Phys. 42, 497–527.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoeksema, J. T.: 1999, http://quake.stanford.edu/~wso (courtesy of J. T. Hoeksema)Google Scholar
  42. Hoeksema, J. T. and Sherrer, P. H.: 1986, Report UAG-94, WDC-A for Solar Terrestrial Physics.Google Scholar
  43. Hundhausen, A. J.: 1993, 'Sizes and Locations of CoronalMass Ejections – SMMObservations from 1980 and 1984–1989', J. Geophys. Res. 98, 13,177–13,200.ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. IMP-8 Data: 1997, ftp://odysseus.uchicago.edu/WWW/Simpson/Imp8.html Google Scholar
  45. Ivanov, K. G.: 1998, 'Solar Sources of Interplanetary Plasma Streams at the Earth's Orbit', Int. J. Geomagn. Aeron. 1, 1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Jokipii, J. R. and Thomas, B. T.: 1981, 'Effects of Drift on the Transport of Cosmic Rays. Modulation by a Wavy Interplanetary Current Sheet', Astrophys. J. 243, 1115–1122.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. King, J. H.: 1976, 'A Survey of Long-Term Interplanetary Magnetic Field Variations', J. Geophys. Res. 81, 653–660.ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Kóta, J. and Jokipii, J. R.: 1983, 'Effects of Drift on the Transport of Cosmic Rays. A Three-Dimensional Model Including Diffusion', Astrophys. J. 265, 573–581.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Kotov, V. A. and Severny, A. B.: 1983, The Data of the World Center B, Moscow, Part 1.Google Scholar
  50. Krymsky, G. F., Krivoshapkin, P. A., Mamrukova, V. P., and Skripin, G. V.: 1997, 'Long-Term Variations of Cosmic Ray Anisotropy', Proc. 25th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Durban 2, 149–152.Google Scholar
  51. Lockwood, J. A.,: 1960, 'On the Long-Term Variation in Cosmic Radiation', J. Geophys. Res. 65, 19.ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Lockwood, J. A. and Webber, W. R.: 1984, 'Integral Radial Cosmic Ray Gradients in the Solar System from 1972 to 1982', Astrophys. J. 279, 151–156.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Lockwood, J. A. and Webber, W. R.: 1997, 'Intensities of Anomalous and Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Outer Heliosphere Near the Heliospheric Equator in 1987 and During Period from 1994 to 1996', J. Geophys. Res. 102, 9773–9779.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Lockwood, J. A., Webber, W. R., and Hoeksema, J. T.: 1988, 'Interplanetary Cosmic Ray Latitudinal Gradient in 1984 to 1987 Using IMP 8 and Voyager Data', J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7521–7526.ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Lopate, C. and Simpson, J. A.: 1991, 'Cosmic Ray Heliospheric Propagation during 22-Year Solar Magnetic Cycle', Proc. 22nd Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 3, 493–496.Google Scholar
  56. McDonald, F. B.: 1998, 'Cosmic Ray Modulation in the Heliosphere', Space Sci. Rev 83, 33–50.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. McDonald, F. B., Lal, N., and McGuire, R. E.: 1999, 'The Onset of Solar Cycle 23 at 1 AU and 70 AU', Proc. 26th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 6, 536–539.Google Scholar
  58. Mikhailutsa, V. P.: 1990, 'Character of Influence of Longitude-Radial and Latitudinal Components of Solar Magnetic Field on the Galactic Cosmic Ray Fluxes', Geomagn. Aeron. 30, 893.ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Moraal, H.: 1976, 'Observations of the Eleven-Year Cosmic-Ray Modulation Cycle', Space Sci. Rev. 19, 845–920.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Moraal, H. et al.: 1989, 'Neutron Monitor Latitude Survey of Cosmic Ray Intensity during the 1986/1987 Solar Minimum', J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1459–1464.ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Nagashima, K. and Morishita, I.: 1980a, 'Long-Term Modulation of Cosmic Rays', Proc. 16th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 3, 313–330.Google Scholar
  62. Nagashima, K. and Morishita, I.: 1980b, 'Long-Term Modulation of Cosmic Rays and Inferable Electromagnetic State in Solar Modulation Region', Planetary Space Sci. 28, 177–194.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. Nagashima, K., Fujimoto, K., and Tatsuoka R.: 1991, 'Nature of Solar-Cycle and Heliomagnetic-Polarity Dependence of Cosmic Rays, Inferred from Their Correlation with Heliomagnetic Spherical Surface Harmonics in the Period 1976–1985', Planetary Space Sci. 39, 1617–1635.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. OMNI Data: 1999, http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/omniweb/ow.html.Google Scholar
  65. Parker, E. N.: 1963, Interplanetary Dynamical Processes, Interscience Publ., New York.MATHGoogle Scholar
  66. Parker, E. N.: 1965, 'The Passage of Energetic Particles through Interplanetary Space', Planetary Space Sci. 13, 9–49.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Pomerantz, M. A. and Duggal, S. P.: 1974, 'The Sun and Cosmic Rays', Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 12, 343.ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Potgieter, M. S.: 1998, 'The Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Heliosphere: Theory and Models', Space Sci. Rev. 83, 147–158.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. Reinecke, J. P. and Potgieter, M. S.: 1994, 'An Explanation for the Difference in Cosmic Ray Modulation at Low and Neutron Monitor Energies during Consecutive Solar Minimum Periods', J. Geophys. Res. 99, 14,761–14,767.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  70. Reinecke, J. P., Moraal, H., Potgieter, M. S., McDonald, F. B., and Webber, W. R.: 1997, 'Different Crossovers?', Proc. 25th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 2, 49–52.Google Scholar
  71. Richardson, J. D., Paularena, K. I., and Wang, C.: 1999, 'The Solar Wind in the Outer Heliosphere', Solar Wind Nine, 183.Google Scholar
  72. Saito, T. and Swinson, D. B.: 1986, 'The Inclination of the Heliospheric Neutral Sheet and Cosmic Ray Intensity at the Earth', J. Geophys. Res. 91, 4536–4542.ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. Sheeley, N. R., Swanson, E. T., and Wang, Y.-M.: 1991, 'Out-of-ecliptic Tests of the Inverse Correlation between Solar Wind Speed and Coronal Expansion Factor', J. Geophys. Res. 96, 13 861–13 868.ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Simpson, J. A.: 1948, 'The Latitude Dependence of Neutron Densities in the Atmosphere as a Function of Altitude', Phys. Rev. 73, 1,389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smith, E. J.: 1990, 'The Heliospheric Current Sheet and Modulation Of Galactic Cosmic Rays', J. Geophys. Res. 95, 18 731–18 743.ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. Smith, E. J., Thomas, B. T.: 1986, 'Latitudinal Extent of the Heliospheric Current Sheet and Modulation of Galactic-Cosmic Rays', J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2933–2942.ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. Storini, M.: 1995, 'Testing Solar Activity Features during the Descending Phase of Sunspot Cycle 22', Adv. Space Res. 16 (9)51–(9)55.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stozhkov, Yu. I. and Charakhchyan, T. N.: 1970, 'On the Role of the Heliolatitudes of Sunspots in the 11-year Galactic Cosmic Ray Modulation', Proc. 11th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 2, 301–304.Google Scholar
  79. Sunspot Data: 1999, ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/STP/SOLAR DATA/SUNSPOT_NUMBERS/Google Scholar
  80. Svirzhevskaya, A. K., Svirzhevsky, N. S., Stozhkov, Yu. I., and Charakhchyan, T. N.: 1987, 'The Energy Spectrum Variations of Galactic Cosmic Rays in 1959–1985 According to Stratospheric Data', Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 3, 311–314.Google Scholar
  81. Thambyahpillai, T. and Elliot, H.: 1953, 'Worldwide Changes in the Phase of the Cosmic Ray Solar Daily Variation', Nature 171, 918–920.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  82. Thomas, B. T. and Goldstein, B. E.: 1983, 'The Effect of the Solar Field Reversal on the Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays', Solar Wind Five, 441–448.Google Scholar
  83. Thomas, B. T., Goldstein, B. E, and Smith, E. J.: 1986, 'The Effect of the Heliospheric Current Sheet on Cosmic Ray Intensities at Solar Maximum – Two Alternative Hypotheses', J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2889–2895.ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Usoskin, I. G., Kananen, H., Mursula, K., Tanskanen, P., and Kovaltsov, G. A.: 1998, 'Correlative Study of Solar Activity and Cosmic Ray Intensity', J. Geophys. Res. 103, 9567–9574.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  85. Vanyarkha, N. Ya.: 1995, 'Reconstruction of Heliospheric Current Sheet Configuration from Geomagnetic Data Since 1926', Geomagn. Aeron. 35, 99–103.Google Scholar
  86. Webber, W. R. and Lockwood, J. A.: 1988, 'Characteristics of the 22-year Modulation of Cosmic Rays as Seen by Neutron Monitors', J. Geophys. Res. 93, 8735–8740.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Webber, W. R., Potgieter, M. S., and Burger, R. A.: 1990, 'A Comparision of Prediction of a Wave Neutral Sheet Drift Model with Cosmic Ray Data over a Whole Modulation Cycle: 1976–1987', Astrophys. J. 349, 634–640.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anatoly Belov
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN)Russia
  2. 2.Troitsk, Moscow regionRussia

Personalised recommendations