Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 225, Issue 1–2, pp 117–127 | Cite as

Root-induced increases in soil pH and nutrient availability to field-grown cereals and legumes on acid sandy soils of Sudano-Sahelian West Africa

  • M. Bagayoko
  • S. Alvey
  • G. Neumann
  • A. Buerkert
Article

Abstract

A field experiment with millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and groundnut (Arachnis hypogeae L.) was conducted on severely P-deficient acid sandy soils of Niger, Mali and Burkina Faso to measure changes in pH and nutrient availability as affected by distance from the root surface and by mineral fertiliser application. Treatments included three rates of phosphorus (P) and four levels of nitrogen (N) application. Bulk, rhizosphere and rhizoplane soils were sampled at 35, 45 and 75 DAS in 1997 and at 55 and 65 DAS in 1998. Regardless of the cropping system and level of mineral fertiliser applied, soil pH consistently increased between 0.7 and two units from the bulk soil to the rhizoplane of millet. Similar pH gradients were observed in cowpea, but pH changes were much smaller in sorghum with a difference of only 0.3 units. Shifts in pH led to large increases in nutrient availability close to the roots. Compared with the bulk soil, available P in the rhizoplane was between 190 and 270% higher for P-Bray and between 360 and 600% higher for P-water. Exchangeable calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels were also higher in the millet rhizoplane than in the bulk soil, whereas exchangeable aluminium (Al) levels decreased with increasing pH close to the root surface. The results suggest an important role of root-induced pH increases for crops to cope with acidity-induced nutrient deficiency and Al stress of soils in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa.

anion/cation uptake cowpea millet phosphorus rhizosphere 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ae N, Arihara J and Okada K 1991 Phosphourus response of chickpea and evaluation of phosphorus availability in Indian Alfisols and Vertisols. In Phosphorus Nutrition of Grain legumes in the Semi-arid Tropics. Eds. C Johansen, K K Lee and K L Schrawat. pp 33–41. Patacherus, A P India, ICRISAT.Google Scholar
  2. Aguilars S and Van Diest A 1981 Rock phosphate mobilization induced by alkaline uptake pattern of legume utilizing symbiotically fixed nitrogen. Plant Soil 61, 27–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagayoko M, Buerkert A, Lung G, Bationo A and Römheld V 2000 Cereal/legume rotation effects on cereal growth in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa: Soil mineral nitrogen, mycorrhizae and nematodes. Plant Soil 218, 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barber S A, Walker J M and Vasey M 1962 Principles of ion movement through the soil to plant root. Int. Soc. Soil Sci., Trans. Comm. III Palmerston N., New Zeal. Pp. 129–124.Google Scholar
  5. Bationo A and Buerkert A 2000 Soil organic carbon management for sustainable land use in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa. Nutrient Cycling Agrosyst. (accepted).Google Scholar
  6. Buerkert A, Bagayoko M, Bationo A and Marschner H 1997 Sitespecific differences in the response of cereals and legumes to rock phosphate, crop residue mulch and nitrogen in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa. In Soil Fertility Management in West African Land Use Systems. Eds. G Renard, A Neef, K Becker and M Von Oppen. pp 53–59. Proceedings of a regional workshop, University of Hohenheim, ICRISAT, INRAN, Niamey, Niger, 4- 8 March 1997. Verlag Josef Margraf, Weikersheim, Germany.Google Scholar
  7. Buerkert A, Bationo A and Dossa K 2000 Mechanisms of residue mulch induced cereal growth increases in West Africa. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 64, 346–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dracup M N H, Barrett-Lennar E G, Greenway H and Robson A D 1984 Effects of phosphorus deficiency on phosphatase activity of cell walls from roots of subterranean clover. J. Exp. Bot. 35, 466–480.Google Scholar
  9. Eivazi F and Tabatabai M A 1977 Phosphatases in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 9, 167–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gahoonia T S, Claassen N and Jungk A 1992 Mobilisation of phosphate in different soils by ryegrass supplied with ammonium or nitrate. Plant Soil 140, 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gahoonia T S and Nielsen N E 1992 The effects of root-induced pH changes on the depletion of inorganic and organic phosphorus in the rhizosphere. Plant Soil. 143, 185–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gijsman A J 1990 Nitrogen nutrition of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) on strongly acid sandy soil. II. Proton excretion and rhizosphere pH. Plant Soil 126, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hafner H 1992 Effect of organic and inorganic fertiliser application on growth and mineral nutrient uptake of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in acid sandy soil of Niger. Verlag Ulrich E Grauer Wendlingen. Dissertation Universität Hohenheim. Institut für Pflanzenernährung. 121 p.Google Scholar
  14. Häussling M and Marschner H 1989 Organic and inorganic soil phosphates and acid phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere of 80-year-old Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] trees. Biol. Fertil. Soils 8, 128–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hedley M J, White R E and Nye P H 1982 Plant-induced changes in the rhizosphere of rape (Brassica napus var. Emerald) seedlings. III. Changes in L values, soil phosphate fractions and phosphatase activity. New Phytol. 91, 45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Joner E J, Magid J, Gahoonia T S and Jakobsen I, 1995 P depletion and activity of phosphatases in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Soil Biol. Biochem. 27, 1145–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kretzschmar R M, Hafner H, Bationo A and Marschner H 1991 Long-and short-term effects of crop residues on aluminium toxicity, phosphorus availability and growth of pearl millet in an acid sandy soil. Plant Soil 136, 215–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lawes Agricultural Trust 1995 GENSTAT 5 Release 3.2 Reference Manual. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  19. Marschner H 1989 Effect of soil acidification on root growth, nutrient and water uptake. In Internat. Congr. Forest Decline Res. State of knowledge and Perspectives. Ed. B Ulrich. pp 381–404.Google Scholar
  20. Marschner H 1998 Soil-root interface: Biological and biochemical processes. In Soil Chemistry and Ecosystem Health. SSSA Special Publication no. 52. 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Marschner H, Römheld V, Horst S and Martin P 1986 Root-induced changes in the rhizosphere, importance for mineral nutrition of plants. Z. Pflanzenernähr., Bodenkd. 149, 441–456.Google Scholar
  22. Mc Lean E O 1982 Soil pH and lime requirement pp 199- 224. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Eds. AL Page et al. Part 2. 2nd edn. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  23. Mengel K 1994 Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation - its dependence on plant nutrition its ecophysiological impact. Z. Pflanzenernähr. Bodenkd. 157, 233–241.Google Scholar
  24. Mengel K and Steffens D 1982 Relationships between the cation/anion uptake and the release of protons by roots of red clover. Z. Pflanzenernähr. Bodenkd. 145, 229–236.Google Scholar
  25. Murphy J and Riley J P 1962 A modified single solution mood for the determination of phosphate in water Analytica Chimica Acta 27, 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Neumann G and Römheld V 1999 Root excretion of carboxylic acids and protons in phosphorus-deficient plants. Plant Soil 211, 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nye P H 1981 Changes of pH across the rhizosphere induced by roots. Plant Soil 61, 7–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ohwaki Y and Hirata H 1992 Differences in carboxylic acid exudation among starved leguminous crops in relation to carboxylic acid contents in plant tissues and phospholipid level in roots. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 38, 235–243.Google Scholar
  29. Olsen SR and Sommers L E 1982 Phosphrus. pp 403–430. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Eds. A L Page et al. Part 2. 2nd edn. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  30. Payne W A, Brück H, Sattelmacher B, Shetty S V R and Renard C 1996 Root growth and soil water extraction of three pearl millet varieties during different phenological stages. In Dynamics of Roots and Nitrogen in Cropping Systems of the Semi-arid Tropics. Eds. O Ito, C Johansen, Jadu-Gyamfi, K Katayama, J V D K Kumar Rao and T J Rego. pp 251–259. Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences.Google Scholar
  31. Römheld V 1998 The importance of rhizosphere processes in the mineral nutrition of rainfed lowland rice. In Rainfed Rowland Rice: Advances in Nutrient Management Research. Eds. J K Ladha, L J Wade, A Dobermann, W Reichardt, G J D Kirk and C Piggin. pp 261–270. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Nutrient Research in Rainfed Lowlands, 12- 15 Oct. 1998 Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute.Google Scholar
  32. Sissingh H A 1971 Analytical technique of the Pw method used for the assessment of the phosphate status of arable soils in the Netherlands. Plant Soil 34, 483–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tarafdar J C and Marschner H 1994 Phosphatase activity in the rhizsophere and hyphosphere of VA mycorrhizal wheat supplied with inorganic and organic phosphorus. Soil Biol. Biochem. 26, 387–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Youssef R A and Chino M 1987 Studies on the behavior of nutrients in the rhizosphere. I. Establishment of a new rhizobox system to study nutrient status in the rhizosphere. J. Plant Nutr. 10, 1185–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Bagayoko
    • 1
  • S. Alvey
    • 2
  • G. Neumann
    • 3
  • A. Buerkert
    • 4
  1. 1.Institut d'Economie Rurale (IER)BamakoMali
  2. 2.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  3. 3.Institut für Pflanzenernährung (330)Universität HohenheimStuttgartGermany
  4. 4.Institut für NutzpflanzenkundeUniversität KasselWitzenhausenGermany

Personalised recommendations