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Coronal Mass Ejections and Forbush Decreases

Abstract

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are plasma eruptions from the solar atmosphere involving previously closed field regions which are expelled into the interplanetary medium. Such regions, and the shocks which they may generate, have pronounced effects on cosmic ray densities both locally and at some distance away. These energetic particle effects can often be used to identify CMEs in the interplanetary medium, where they are usually called `ejecta'. When both the ejecta and shock effects are present the resulting cosmic ray event is called a `classical, two-step' Forbush decrease. This paper will summarize the characteristics of CMEs, their effects on particles and the present understanding of the mechanisms involved which cause the particle effects. The role of CMEs in long term modulation will also be discussed.

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Cane, H.V. Coronal Mass Ejections and Forbush Decreases. Space Science Reviews 93, 55–77 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026532125747

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Keywords

  • Solar Wind
  • Cane
  • Coronal Mass Ejection
  • Magnetic Cloud
  • Flux Rope