Bone cements and fillers: A review
- Cite this article as:
- Kenny, S.M. & Buggy, M. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine (2003) 14: 923. doi:10.1023/A:1026394530192
Charnley  developed the first bone cement in the 1960s using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which remains the most widely used material for fixation of orthopaedic joint replacements. In the field of dentistry, zinc polycarboxylate and glass polyalkenoate cements received major research interest from the 1970s to the present day. The discovery of a well-integrated intermediate layer between bone and many bioactive ceramic phases from the calcium–phosphate system, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), resulted in the development of new cements incorporating such phases. These investigations ranged from the development of castable bioactive materials to modified bioactive composites. This paper attempts to give a broad overview of the many different types of cements that have being developed in the past and those which are being researched at the present time. It has lead to a set of fundamental design criteria that should be considered prior to the development of a cement for use as a bone cement or in applications requiring a bone substitute.