Journal of Indian Philosophy

, Volume 31, Issue 5–6, pp 503–592 | Cite as

Twenty Varieties of the Samgha: A Typology of Noble Beings (Ārya) in Indo-Tibetan Scholasticism (Part I)

  • James Apple
Article

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCE

  1. nguttaranikāya. Edited by R. Morris, R. & E. Hardy (1885-1900). London: Pali Text Society, 5 volumes. Translated by F.L. Woodward & M. Hare (1932-1936). Gradual Sayings. London: PTS, 3 volumes.Google Scholar
  2. Abhidharmāmtarasaśāstra by Ghosaka. Translated and annotated by José van den Broeck (1977). La Saveur de L'Immortel = A-p'it-t'an Kan Lu Wei Lun: la version chinoise de l'Amtaasa de Ghosaka. (T. 1553). Broeck. Louvain-la-Neuve: Université catholique de Louvain, Institut orientaliste; Louvain: commandes.Google Scholar
  3. Abhidharmakośakārikā by Vasubandhu. Edited by V.V. Gokhale (1946). The text of the Abhidharmakośakārikā of Vasubandhu. Journal of the Bombay Branch, Royal Asiatic Society 22, 73-102; (1947) 23, 12. Translated by Jinamitra, Dpal brtsegs. Chos mngon pa'i mdzod kyi tshig le'ur byas pa. Pk 5590, Volume 115.Google Scholar
  4. Abhidharmakośabhāya by Vasubandhu. Translated and annotated by Louis de La Vallée Poussin (1971). L'Abhidharmakośa de Vasubandhu. Nouvelle éd. anastatique présentée parz Étienne Lamotte. Bruxelles: Institut belge des Hautes Ūtudes chinoises, 6 tomes (MCB, XVI). English translation by Leo M. Pruden (1989). Volumes I to IV, Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press. Translated by Jinamitra, Dpal brtsegs. Chos mgnon pa'i mdzod kyi bshad pa. Pk 5591, Volume 115. Edited by P. Pradhan (1967, reprint 1975). Abhidharmakośabhāya of Vasubandhu. Patna: K.P. Jayaswal Research Institute (Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series, Vol. VIII.). Compiled by A. Hirakawa (1973-1978). Index to the Abhidharmakośabhāya. Part I: Sanskrit-Tibetan-Chinese. Part II: Chinese-Sanskrit. Part III: Tibetan-Sanskrit. Tokyo: Daizo Shuppan, 3 volumes.Google Scholar
  5. Abhidharmakośabhāyavyākhyā by Yaśomitra. Edited by Swami Dwarikadas Shastri (1971). Abhidharmakośa & Bhāya of ¯cārya Vasubandhu with Sphuārthā Commentary of ¯cārya Yaśomitra. Bauddha Bhāratī, Series, No. 5. Vārāasī: Bauddha Bhāratī, 4 volumes. Translated by Viśuddhisiha, Dpal brtsegs. Chos mgnon pa'i mdzod kyi 'grel bshad. Pk. 5593, Volume 116.Google Scholar
  6. Abhidharmasamuccaya of Asanga. Fragments edited by V.V. Gokhale (1947). Fragments from the Abhidharmasamuccaya of Asanga. Journal of the Bombay Branch, Royal Asiatic Society 23, 13-38. Edited by Pralhad Pradhan (1950). Abhidharmasamuccaya. Santiniketan: Visvabharati. Translated by Jinamitra, Śīlendrabodhi, Ye she sde. Chos mngon pa kun las btus pa. Pk. 5550, Volume 112.Google Scholar
  7. Abhidharmasamuccayabhāya by Jinaputra. Edited by Nathmial Tatia (1976). Abhidharmasamuccayabhāya. Patna: K.P. Jayaswal Research Institute. Translated by Jinamitra, Śīlendrabodhi, Ye she sde. Chos mngon pa kun las btus pa'i bshad pa. Pk. 5554, Volume 113.Google Scholar
  8. Abhisamayālakāra. Edited by Th. Stcherbatsky & E. Obermiller (1929). Abhisamayālakāraprajñāpāramitopadeśaśāstrakārikā. Leningrad (Bibliotheca Buddhica, XXIII, fasc. 1). Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 2nd edn., 1992. Translated by Go mi 'chi med, Blo ldan shes rab. Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan zhes bya ba'i tshig le'ur bya pa. Pk 5184, Volume 88. Translated by E. Conze (1954). Abhisamayālankāra. Introduction and Translation from Original Text with Sanskrit-Tibetan Index. Roma: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente. Abhisamayālakārālokā Prajñāpāramitāvyākhyā by Haribhadra. Edited by U. Wogihara (1932-1935). The Work of Haribhadra. Tokyo: The Toyo Bunko. Edited by Giuseppe Tucci (1932). Baroda: Oriental Institute. Compiled by Ryusei Keira & Noboru Ueda (1998). Sanskrit Word-Index to the Abhisamayālakārālokā Prajñāpāramitāvyākhyā (U. Wogihara edition). Tokyo: Sankibo Press. Abhisamayālakārasphuārthā by Haribhadra. Edited Sanskrit Manuscript by Hirofusa Amano (1983). Sanskrit manuscript of the Abhisamayālakāravtti (1). Bulletin for the Hijiyama Women's Junior College 17, 1-15; idem (1985). Sanskrit manuscript of the Abhisamayāalakāra-vtti (2). Bulletin of the Faculty of Education of Shimane University 19, 124-138; idem (1986). Sanskrit manuscript of the Abhisamayālakāra-vtti (3). Bulletin of the Faculty of Education of Shimane University 20, 67-86; (1987). Sanskrit manuscript of the Abhisamayālakāra-vtti (4). Bulletin for the Faculty of Education of Shimane University 21, 39-51; idem (1988). Sanskrit manuscript of the Abhisamayālakāra-vtti (5). Bulletin of the Faculty of Education of Shimane University 22, 9-25; idem (1989). Sanskrit manuscript of the Abhisamayālakāra-vtti (6). Bulletin of the Faculty of Education of Shimane University 23, 1-7; idem (1992). Sanskrit manuscript of the Abhisamayāla7}kāra-v8}tti (7). Hannyaharamittashisëronshū. Tokyo: Sankibo, pp. 195-203; (2000) Abhisamayāla9}kāra-kārikā-śāstra-viv0}ti: Haribhadra's Commentary on the Abhisamayāla1}kāra-kārikā-śāstraedited for the first time from a Sanskrit Manuscript. Kyoto: Heirakuji-shoten. Translated by Vidyākaraprabha, Dpal brtsegs. Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par togs pa'i rgyan ces bya ba'i 'grel pa. Pk 5191, Volume 90 Edited by Rāmaśankara Tripā2}hī. Prajñāpāramitopadeśaśāstra Abhisamayālankārav3}tti Sphu4}ārthā ¯cāryaharibhadraviracitā; (1977) Sa5}sk6}tarūpāntarakāra7} sampādakaś ca Sāranāthah: Kendriya-Tibbati-ucca-Siksha-Samsthanam (Bibliotheca Indo-Tibetica-2.)Google Scholar
  9. Abhisamayāla8}kārav9}tti by Ārya Vimuktisena. Edited by Corrado Pensa (1967). L'Abhisamayāla0}kārav1}tti di ¯Arya-Vimuktisena. Primo Abhisamaya. Testo e note critiche. Roma: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente. Translated by Śāntibhadra, Śākya 'od. Mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi 'grel pa. Pk 5185, Volume 88.Google Scholar
  10. A2}3}asāhasrikāprajñāpāramitāsūtra. Edited by U. Wogihara; included in Abhisamay āla4}kāra-ālokā. Edited by P.L. Vaidya (1960). A5}6}asāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā, with Haribhadra's commentary called ¯Aloka. Buddhist Sanskrit Texts, #4. Darbhanga, India.Google Scholar
  11. Avaivartacakranāmamahāyānasūtra. Translated by Jinamitra, Dānaśīla, Munivarma, Ye shes sde. 'Phags pa phyir mi ldog pa'i 'khor lo zhes bya ba theg pa chen po'i mdo. Pk 906, Volume 36.Google Scholar
  12. Dhammapada. Pāli text with English translation in John Ross Carter & M. Palihawadana (trans.) (1992). Sacred Writings, Buddhism: The Dhammapada. New York: Quality Paperback Book Club.Google Scholar
  13. Pañcavi7}śatisāhasrikāprajñāpāramitā. Edited by N. Dutt (1934). Calcutta: Calcutta Oriental Series No. 28. Translated by E. Conze (1975). The Large Sutra on Perfect wisdom, with the Divisions of the Abhisamayālankāra. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Puggalapaññatti. Edited by Richard Morris (1972). London: Luzac for the Pali Text Society. Translation by Bimala Charan Law (1969 [c1924]). Designation of Human Types (Puggalapaññatti). London: Published for the Pali Text Society by Luzac & Co.Google Scholar
  15. Puggalapaññatti-atthakathā. Edited by Georg Landsberg & Mrs. Rhys Davids (1972). London: Luzac for the Pali Text Society.Google Scholar
  16. Mahāvyutpatti (1916-1925). Hon'yaku myëgi taishū: Bon-zë-kan-wa yon'yaku taikë. Chosakusha Sakaki Ryëzaburë. Kyëto: Shingonshū Kyëto Daigaku, Taishë, pp. 5-14.Google Scholar
  17. A mchog Rinpoche Blo bzan mkhyen rab rgya mtsho (1993). Introduction. Lotsaba chen po'i bsdus don bzhugs so = Commentary on the Abhisamayāla}kāra by Rnog Lotsaba Blo-ldan-'ses-rab; with an introduction by the 81st abbot of Shar-rtse Grva-tshan, 4th Amchog Rinpoche Blo-bzan-mkhyen-rab-rgya-mtsho and David P. Jackson. Dharamsala, H.P.: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.Google Scholar
  18. A tsa Sprul sku Bstan' dzin zla-grags (1996). Mahātmā Conkhāpā (Sumatikīrti) jī kā vyaktitvaevam krtitva = Mnyam med Tsong-kha-pa chen po'i rnam thar dang mdza rjes phyogs bsdus dwan ba'i sgo' byed. Sāranātha, Vārānasī: Kendrīya Ucca Tibbatī SikshāSamsthāna.Google Scholar
  19. mKhas grub dge legs dpal bzang po (1385-1438) (1966). Rje btsun bla ma tsong kha pa chen po'i no mtshar rmad du byung ba'i rnam par thar pa dad pa'i 'jug ngogs zhes bya ba'i bzhugs so. Vārānasī: K. Lhundup and Lama Samdup.Google Scholar
  20. Go ram pa bsod nams seng ge (1429-1489) (1969). Zhugs gnas kyi rnam gzhag skyes bu mchog gi gsal byed. Sa skya'i' kah' bum, Volume 14, Tokyo: Toyo bunkyo.Google Scholar
  21. rGyal tshab dar ma rin chen (1364-2432). Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi rtsa ba' grel pa dang bcas pa'i rnam bshad snying po'i rgyan (=rnam bshad nying po'i rgyan) (Sung' bum, t. kha).Google Scholar
  22. sGra sbyor bam po gnyis pa. Ishikawa, Mie (ed.) (1990). A Critical Edition of the sGra sbyor bam po gnyis pa. An Old and Basic Commentary on the Mahāvyutpatti. Studia Tibetica, 18, Materials for Tibetan-Mongolian Dictionaries, vol. 2, Tokyo: The Toyo Bunko.Google Scholar
  23. Ngag dbang bkra bshis (1678-1738) (1980). Zhugs pa dang gnas pa'i' phags pa'i dge' dun gyi rnam gzhag gi mtha' dpyod skal bzang' jug ngogs in dge' dun nyi su'i mtha' dpyod; with other minor texts from the Yig-cha of Sgo-mang College. Delhi: Kesang Thabkhes.Google Scholar
  24. rNgog blo ldan shes rab, “rNgog lo tsā ba” (1059-1109) (1993). Lo tsa ba chen po'i bsdus don: A Commentary on the Abhisamayāla}kāra. Introduction by Blo bzang mkhyen rab rgya mtsho and Dr. David P. Jackson. Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.Google Scholar
  25. 'Jam dpal rgya mtsho, Rtogs ldan, 1356-1428 (1970). Rje btsun tsong kha pa'i rnam thar chen mo'i zur' debs rnam thar legs bshad kun' dus bzhugs so. Varanasa: Legs bshad gter mdzod par khan.Google Scholar
  26. Nya dbon kun dga' dpal (14th century) (1978). Bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan' grel pa dang bcas pa'i rgyas' grel bshad sbyar yid kyi mun sel, bKra shis 'k hil ba'i chos grva edition. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  27. Tāranātha, Jo nang pa, b. 1575. Translated from the Tibetan by Lama Chimpa and A. Chattopadhyaya.Edited by D. Chattopadhyaya (1970). Rgya gar chos' byung. Tāranātha's History of Buddhism in India. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study.Google Scholar
  28. Bstan pa dar rgyas, Ser Smad Mkhas grub (1493-1568) (1969). Dge' dun nyi shu'i mtha' dpyod bzhugs so. Dge-'dun-bstan-dar-ba chen po'i gsun. Ser Smad Grwa-tshan.Google Scholar
  29. rNam gyal dbang chen (contemporary) (dy1996). Dbu sems kyi lta ba dang tshad mar sgrub pa'i le'u'i snying don, mngon rtogs rgyan gyi tshig don bcas gsal bar bstan pa'i legs bshad utpala'i gru char. Bras spung blo gsal gling dpe mdzod khan. Karanataka.Google Scholar
  30. Bod rgya tshig mdzod chen mo (The Extensive Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary) (1998). Beijing: National Minorities Press, Mi rigs dpe skrun khang (one volume).Google Scholar
  31. Bu ston rin chen grub (1290-1364). Bde bar gshegs pa'i bstan pa'i gsal byed chos kyi 'byun gnas gsung rab rin po che'i mdzod ces bya ba. Translated from Tibetan by E. Obermiller (1931-1932). History of Buddhism (Chos 'byung). Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  32. Bu ston rin chen grub (1290-1364) (1971). Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan ces bya ba'i' grel pa'i rgya cher bshad pa lung gi snye ma. The Collected of Bu-ston, part 18 (Tsha). New Delhi.Google Scholar
  33. Bu ston rin chen grub (1290-1364) (1971). Gsan yig. The Collected Works of Bu-ston, part 21(La). New Delhi.Google Scholar
  34. Tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa (1357-1419) (1975-1979). Khams gsum chos kyi rgyal po tsong kha pa chen po'i gsung 'bum. Collected Works. Dge ldan gsung rab mi nyams rgyun phel series 79-105, published by Ngag dbang dge legs bde mo.Google Scholar
  35. Tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa (1357-1419) (1977). Dge' dun nyi shu bsdus pa rjes gnang ba dang zhugs gnas bzhugs so; fols. 593-606. Collected Works, Volume 27.Google Scholar
  36. Tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa (1357-1419) (1991). Drang nges legs bshad snying po = The Essence of Eloquent Speech on the Defintive and Interpretable. Mundgod, District North Kanara, Karnataka, India: SOKU Publication.Google Scholar
  37. Tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa (1357-1419). Rje rin po che blo bzang grags pa'i dpal gyi gsan yig. Khams gsum chos kyi rgyal po tsong kha pa chen po'i gsum' bum. Vol. Ka, pp. 233-293.Google Scholar
  38. Tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa (1357-1419) (1973). Dbu ma la 'jug pa'i rnam bshad dgongs pa rab gsal. Sarnath: Gelupa Students Union.Google Scholar
  39. Tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa (1357-1419) (1975). Dbu ma rtsa ba'i tshig le'ur byas pa shes rab ces bya ba'i rnam bshad rigs pa'i rgya mtsho. Va na mtho slob dge ldan spyi las khang nas.Google Scholar
  40. Tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa (1357-1419) (1970). Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan' grel pa dang bcas pa'i rgya cher bshad pa legs bshad gser phreng zhes bya ba bzhugs so (=Legs bshad gser phreng), Volume 1. Sarnath: Lama Thuptan Jungnes. Also Collected Works, 1977, Volumes 26 and 27, gSung' bum lHa sa edition, v. tsa and tsha.Google Scholar
  41. Tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa (1357-1419) (1977). Zhugs pa dang gnas pa'i skyes bu chen bo rnams kyi rnam par bshag pa blo gsal bgrod pa'i them skad zhes bya ba bzhugs so in The Collected Works (gsun bum) of Rje Tsoÿn-kha-pa Blo-bzaÿn-grags-pa. Reproduced from an example of the old Bkra-sis-lhun-po redaction from the library of Klu' khyil Monastery of Ladhakh by Ngawang Gelek Demo. New Delhi, Volume 27.Google Scholar
  42. Tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa (1357-1419) (1977). Yid dang kun gzhi'i dka' ba'i gnad rgya cher' grel ba legs bshad rgya mtsho. New Delhi, Volume 27. (1993). Introduced and translated by Gareth Sparham in collaboration with Shotaro Iida. Ocean of Eloquence: Tsong Kha Pa's commentary on the Yogācāra Doctrine of Mind. Albany: SUNY.Google Scholar
  43. Rong ston shes bya kun rig (1367-1449) (1979). Mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan' grel pa dang bcas pa'i dka' ba'i gnas rnam par' byed pa zab don gnad kyi zla' od: a detailed exegesis of the Abhisamayāla}kāra and its commentary by Haribhadra. Gangtok: Sherab Gyaltsen.Google Scholar
  44. Rong ston shes bya kun rig (1367-1449). Edited by David P. Jackson in collaboration with Shunzo Onoda (1988). Rong-ston on the Prajñāpāramitā Philosophy of the Abhisamayāla}kāra: His Sub-Commentary on Haribhadra's "sph}ārthā'. Kyoto.Google Scholar
  45. Rong ston shes bya kun rig (1367-1449) (1989). Rong-ston on the Prajñāpāramitā Philosophy of the Abhisamayāla}kāra: His Sub-Commentary on Haribhadra's "sph}ārthā', by Rong ston Kun mkhyen. New Delhi: Pal-lden Sakya'i-sung-rab Book Publisher.Google Scholar
  46. Śākya mchog ldan, Gser mdog Pan chen, (1428-1507) (1975). Dge 'dun nyi shu'i mtha'rnam par dpyad pa'i thal 'gyur ngag gi dbang po'i mdzes rgyan zhes bya ba bzhugs so. Complete Works of Gser mdog pan. chen śākya mchog ldan. Thimphu Bhutan, Volume 13, pp. 1-111Google Scholar
  47. Śākya mchog ldan, Gser mdog Pan chen, (1428-1507) (1969). Mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan' grel pa don gsal ba dang bcas pa'i rnam par bshad pa shing rta'i srol gnyis gcig tu bsdus pa'i lam po che zhes bya ba bzhugs so. Lhun-grub-rtse'i-rdzon?Google Scholar
  48. Shes rab rgya mtshan, Dol po pa, 1292-1361 (1992). Rnam bshad mdo'i don bde blag tu rtog pa, Volume 6, pp. 323-882, in The 'Dzam-thang edition of the collected works (gsung-'bum) of Kun-mkhyen Dol-po-pa Shes-rab-rgyal-mtshan, collected and presented by Matthew Kapstein. Delhi, India: Shedrup Books.Google Scholar
  49. Se ra rje btsun Chos kyi rgyal mtshan (1469-1546) (1980). Bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan' grel pa dang bcas pa'i rnam bshad rnam pa gnyis kyi dka' ba'i gnas gsal bar byed pa legs bshad skal bzang klu dbang gi rol mtsho zhes bya ba. Bylakuppe: Se-ra Byes Grwa-tshan.Google Scholar
  50. Se ra rje btsun Chos kyi rgyal mtshan (1469-1546) (196?).} Dge' dun nyi shu'i mtha' gcod: Rje-btsun Chos-kyi-rgyal-mtshan-dpal-bzang-po'i gsung rtsom dri ma med pa mkhas pa'i mgul rgyan zhes bya ba bzhugs so. Sbag-sa: Se-ra Byes Grwa-tshan.Google Scholar
  51. Zhang zhung chos sbang grags pa (1404-1469). Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi' grel pa don gsal ba'i rnam bshad rtogs par dka' ba'i snang ba (=rtogs dka'i snang ba). In Collected Works of mKhas grub rje (gSung 'bum, vol. ka).Google Scholar
  52. Amano, K.H. (1961). A fragment from the Abhisamayāla}kāra-nāma-prajñāpāramitopadeśa-śāstrav}tti, alias "sphu}ārthā' of Haribhadra. Annual Report of the Tohoku Research Institute of Buddhist Culture 3, 1-25 [in Japanese].Google Scholar
  53. Amano, K.H. (1969). On the composite purpose of the Abhisamayāla}kāra-kārikā-śāstra - Haribhadra's way of explaining. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 17(2), 59-69 [in Japanese].Google Scholar
  54. Amano, K.H. (1975). A Study of the Abhisamaya-ala}kāra-kārika-śāstra-v}tti. Tokyo: Japan Science Press.Google Scholar
  55. Angdu, S. (ed.) (1973). Tibetan-Sanskrit Lexicographical Materials, the sGra ryor bam po gnyis, the Dag yiz za ma tog, and the Dag yig li shi'i gur khang. Leh: Basgo Thongspon Publication.Google Scholar
  56. Apple, J. (2001). Twenty varieties of the Sa}gha: Tsong kha pa's soteriological exegesis. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  57. Barthes, R. (1966). Introduction à l'analyse structurale des récits. Communications (8).Google Scholar
  58. Barthes, R. (1967) Elements of Semiology. London: Jonathan Cape.Google Scholar
  59. Buswell, R.E. & Gimello, R.M. (eds.) (1992). Paths to Liberation. The Mārga and its Transformations in Buddhist Thought. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  60. Cabezón, J. (1994). Buddhism and Language: A Study of Indo-Tibetan Scholasticism. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  61. Conze, E. (1947). On omniscience and the goal. The Middle Way 22(3), 62-63.Google Scholar
  62. Conze, E. (1952a). The composition of the A}}asāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā. BSOAS 14, 251-262.Google Scholar
  63. Conze, E. (1952b). The literature on perfect wisdom. The Middle Way 27(1), 20-23.Google Scholar
  64. Conze, E. (1953). The ontology of the Prajñāpāramitā. Philosophy East and West 3(2), 117-129.Google Scholar
  65. Conze, E. (1954a). Abhisamayāla}kāra. Roma: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.Google Scholar
  66. Conze, E. (1954b). Maitreya's Abhisamayāla}kāra. East and West 5(3), 192-197.Google Scholar
  67. Conze, E. (1957). Marginal notes to the Abhisamayāla}kāra. Sino-Indian Studies 5, 21- 36.Google Scholar
  68. Conze, E. (1958). The oldest Prajñāpāramitā. The MiddleWay 32, 136-141.Google Scholar
  69. Conze, E. (1961). Abhisamayāla}kāra (1). Encylopedia of Buddhism, Fascicule I. Colombo: Government of Ceylon, pp. 114-116.Google Scholar
  70. Conze, E. (1967a). Buddhist Thought in India. University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  71. Conze, E. (1967b). Materials for a Dictionary of the Prajñāpāramitā Literature. Tokyo Suzuki Research Foundation.Google Scholar
  72. Conze, E. (1975a). The Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom, with the Divisions of the Abhisamayālankāra. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  73. Conze, E. (1975b). The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines. Bolinas, CA: Four Seasons Foundation.Google Scholar
  74. Conze, E. (1978a). Notes on the text of the A}}asahāsrikā. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1, 14-20.Google Scholar
  75. Conze, E. (1978b). The Prajñāpāramitā Literature, 2nd edn. Tokyo: Reiyukai.Google Scholar
  76. Cox, C. (1992). Attainment through abandonment: The sarvāstivādin path of removing defilements. In Buswell & Gimmello (pp. 63-106).Google Scholar
  77. Dantinne, J. (1983). La splendeur de l'inébranlable (Ak}obhyavyūha). Université catholique de Louvain, Institut orientaliste.Google Scholar
  78. De Silva, L. (1978). Cetovimutti paññavimutti and ubhatobhagavimutti. Pali Buddhist Review 3(3), 118-145.Google Scholar
  79. Dreyfus, G. (1997). Tibetan scholastic education and the role of soteriology. JIABS 20(1), 31-62.Google Scholar
  80. Dutt, N. (1930). Aspects of Mahāyāna Buddhism and its relation to Hīnayāna. London: Luzac & co.Google Scholar
  81. Dutt, N. (1971). Early Monastic Buddhism. Calcutta, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay.Google Scholar
  82. Edgerton, F. (1953: Reprint (1977)). Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. Volume I: Grammar. Volume II: Dictionary. New Haven: Motilal Banarsidass.Google Scholar
  83. Frauwallner, E. (1995). Studies in Abhidharma Literature and the Origins of Buddhist Philosophical Systems. Albany, N.Y.: S.U.N.Y.Google Scholar
  84. Gethin, R. (1992). The Buddhist Path to Awakening, A Study of the Bodhi-Pakkhiyā Dhammā. Leiden: E.J. Brill.Google Scholar
  85. Gombrich, R.F. (1990). Recovering the Buddha's message. In T. Skorupski (ed.), Buddhist Forum, Vol. I, Seminar Papers 187-188 (pp. 5-20). London.Google Scholar
  86. Griffiths, P.J. (1994). On Being Buddha: The Classical Doctrine of Buddhahood. SUNY: Albany.Google Scholar
  87. Guenther, H.V. (1976). Philosophy and Psychology in the Abhidharma. Berkeley, CA: Shambhala.Google Scholar
  88. Horner, I.B. (1934). The four ways and the four fruits in Pāli Buddhism. Indian Historical Quarterly 10, 785-796.Google Scholar
  89. Horner, I.B. (1979). The Early Buddhist Theory of Man Perfected. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corp.Google Scholar
  90. Ishikawa, M. (ed.) (1990). A Critical Edition of the sGra sbyor bam po gnyis pa. An Old and Basic Commentary on the Mahāvyutpatti. Studia Tibetica, 18, Materials for Tibetan-Mongolian Dictionaries, vol. 2, Tokyo: The Toyo Bunko.Google Scholar
  91. Jackson, R.R. & Makransky, J.J. (eds.) (2000). Buddhist Theology: Critical Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars. Curzon Press.Google Scholar
  92. Katz, N. (1982). Buddhist Images of Human Perfection. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.Google Scholar
  93. Lamotte, É. (1949). Le Traité de la Grande Vertu de Sagesse de Nāgārjuna, Volume 2. Louvain: Institut Orientaliste Louvain-la-Neuve, pp. 621-1118.Google Scholar
  94. Lamotte, É. (1988a). Assessment of textual interpretation in Buddhism, translated by Sara Boin-Webb. In Lopez (1998) (pp. 11-25).Google Scholar
  95. Lamotte, É. (1988b). History of Indian Buddhism from the Origins to the Śaka Era, translated by Sara Boin-Webb. Louvain: Institut Orientaliste Louvain-la-Neuve.Google Scholar
  96. Leach, E. (1987). Structuralism. Encyclopedia of Religion 14, 54-64.Google Scholar
  97. Lethcoe, N.R. (1976). Some notes on the relationship between the Abhisamayāla}kāra, the revised Pañcavi}śatisāhasrikāand the Chinese translation of the unrevised Pañcavi}śati-sāhasrikā. JAOS 96, 499-511.Google Scholar
  98. Lopez, D.S. (ed.) (1988). Buddhist Hermeneutics. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  99. Makransky, J.J. (1997). Buddhahood Embodied: Sources of Controversy in India and Tibet. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  100. Manné, J. (1995). Case histories from the Pāli Canon II: Sotāpanna, Sakadāgāmin, Anāgāmin, Arahat - the four stages case history or spiritual materialism and the need for tangible results. Journal of the Pali Text Society XXI, 35-128.Google Scholar
  101. Mano, R. (1972). A Study of the Abhisamayāla}kāra (In Japanese). Tokyo: Saniko Buddhist Book Store, Ltd.Google Scholar
  102. Margolis, J. (1998). Structuralism in literary theory. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (edited by Edward Craig) 9, 181-184.Google Scholar
  103. May, J. (1959). Candrakírti Prasannapadā Madhyamakav}tti. Douze chapitres traduits du sanscrit et du tibétaine, accompagnés d'une introduction, de notes et d'une édition critique de la version tibétaine. Paris: Adrien-Maissonneuve.Google Scholar
  104. Napper, E. (1989). Dependent-arising and Emptiness: a Tibetan Buddhist Interpretation of Madhyamika Philosophy Emphasizing the Compatibility of Emptiness and Conventional Phenomena. London: Wisdom.Google Scholar
  105. Obermiller, E. (1931). The Sublime Science, Acta Orientalia IX. Budapest.Google Scholar
  106. Obermiller, E. (1932). The Doctrine of the Prajñāpāramitā as Exposed in the Abhisamayāla}kāra of Maitreya, Acta Orientalia XI. Budapest.Google Scholar
  107. Obermiller, E. (1933). Analysis of the Abhisamayāla}kāra. London: Luzac.Google Scholar
  108. Obermiller, E. (1934). Nirvān. a according to the Tibetan tradition. Indian Historical Quarterly 10(2), 211-257.Google Scholar
  109. Obermiller, E. (1934). A study of the twenty aspects of Śūnyatābased on Haribhadra's Abhisamayāla}kārāloka and the Pañcavi}śatikasāhasrikā. Indian Historical Quarterly 9(1), 170-187.Google Scholar
  110. Obermiller, E. (1935). Tson-kha-pa le Pandit. Mélanges Chinois et Bouddhiques (Bruxelles) 3, 319-338.Google Scholar
  111. Rahula, W. (1978). The problem of the prospect of the Sangha in the West. Zen and the Taming of the Bull: Towards the definition of Buddhist Thought. London: Gordon Fraser, pp. 55-67.Google Scholar
  112. Raja, K.K. (1969). Indian Theories of Meaning, 2nd edn. Madras: Adyar Library and Research Centre; Wheaton, IL: Agents, Theosophical Publishing House.Google Scholar
  113. Reigle, D. (1997). The 'virtually unknown' benedictive middle in classical Sanskrit: Two occurrences in the Buddhist Abhisamayālankāra. Indo-Iranian Journal 40, 119-123.Google Scholar
  114. Ruegg, D.S. (1963). The Jo-nan-pas, a school of Buddhist ontologists. JAOS 83, 73-91.Google Scholar
  115. Ruegg, D.S. (1966). The Life of Bu ston Rin po che, with the Tibetan text of the Bu ston rNam thar. Roma: Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.Google Scholar
  116. Ruegg, D.S. (1967). The Study of Indian and Tibetan Thought: Some Problems and Perspectives. Inaugural Lecture, Chair of Indian Philosophy, Buddhist Studies and Tibetan, University of Leiden, Leiden, E.J. Brill.Google Scholar
  117. Ruegg, D.S. (1968). The dGe-lugs-pa theory of the Tathāgatagarbha. Pratidānam, Studies Presented to F.B.J. Kuiper (Janua Linguarum Series Maior, The Hague) 34, 500-509.Google Scholar
  118. Ruegg, D.S. (1968-1969). Ārya and Bhadanta Vimuktisena on the Gotra-theory of the Prajñāpāramitā. WZKSO 12-13, 303-317.Google Scholar
  119. Ruegg, D.S. (1969). La Théorie du tathāgatagarbha et du gotra. Publications de l' Ūcole Francaise d'ExtŪme-Orient. Paris: A. Maisonneuve.Google Scholar
  120. Ruegg, D.S. (1973). Le Traité du tathāgatagarbha de Bu ston rin chen grub. Publicationsde l' Ū cole Francaise d'ExtŪme-Orient, Vol. LXXXVIII. Paris: A. Maisonneuve.Google Scholar
  121. Ruegg, D.S. (1976). The meaning of the term Gotra and the textual history of the Ratnagotravibhāga. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 39, 341-363.Google Scholar
  122. Ruegg, D.S. (1977). The Gotra, Ekayāna and Tathāgatagarbha theories of the Prajñāpāramitā according to Dharmamitra and Abhayākaragupta. In L. Lancaster et al. (eds.), The Prajñāpāramitā and Related Systems: Studies in Honor of Edward Conze (pp. 283-312). Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Buddhist Studies, I.Google Scholar
  123. Ruegg, D.S. (1981). The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
  124. Ruegg, D.S. (1985). Purport, implicature and presupposition: Sanskrit abhiprāya and Tibetan dgon pa / dgon gzi as hermeneutical concepts. JIP 13, 309-325.Google Scholar
  125. Ruegg, D.S. (1988). An Indian source for the Tibetan hermeneutical term dgon gzi 'intentional ground'. JIP 16, 1-4.Google Scholar
  126. Ruegg, D.S. (1989). Buddha-Nature, Mind and the Problem of Gradualism in a Comparative Perspective: on the Transmission and Reception of Buddhism in India and Tibet. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.Google Scholar
  127. Ruegg, D.S. (1995). Some reflections of the place of philosophy in the study of Buddhism. JIABS 18(2), 145-181.Google Scholar
  128. Ruegg, D.S. (2000). Studies in Indian and TibetanMadhyamaka Thought, Volume 1.Wien: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.Google Scholar
  129. Samten, J. (1997). Notes on the late twelfth or early thirteenth century commentary on the Abhisamayāla}kāra: A preliminary report of a critical edition. Proceedings of the 7th IATS, Vo. I, Tibetan Studies. Wien, pp. 831-841.Google Scholar
  130. Scherrer-Schaub, C.A. (1981). Le terme yukti: Primière étude. Études Asiatiques 35(2), 185-200.Google Scholar
  131. Sharf, R.H. (1995). Buddhist modernism and the rhetoric of meditative experience. Numen 42(3), 228-283.Google Scholar
  132. Sopa, G.L. et al. (1985). The Wheel of Time: the Kalachakra in Context. Madison: Deer Park Books.Google Scholar
  133. Sopa, G.L. & Hopkins, J. (1989). Cutting Through Appearances, Practice and Theory of Tibetan Buddhism. Snow Lion; Ithaca.Google Scholar
  134. Sparham, G. (1987). Background material for the first of the seventy topics in Maitreyanātha's Abhisamayāla}kāra. JIABS 10(2), 139-158.Google Scholar
  135. Sparham, G. (1989). A study of Haribhadra's Abhisamayāla}kārālokā Prajñāpāmitāvyākhyā. Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
  136. Sparham, G. (1996). A note on Gnyal zhig' Jam pa'i rdo rje, the author of a handwritten Sher phyin commentary from about 1200. Tibet Journal 21(1), 19-29.Google Scholar
  137. Stcherbatsky, T. (1905). Notes de Littérature Bouddhique: La Littérature Yogācāra d'après Bouston. Le Muséon, 141-155.Google Scholar
  138. Steinkellner, E. & Tauscher, H. (eds.) (1983). Contributions on Tibetan and Buddhist Religion and Philosophy. Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde Heft 11. Wien: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.Google Scholar
  139. Thurman, R.A.F. (1978). Buddhist hermeneutics. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 46(1), 19-39.Google Scholar
  140. Tillemans, T.J.F. (1983). The 'neither one nor many' argument for śūnyatā and its Tibetan Interpretations. In E. Steinkellner & H. Tauscher (eds.) (pp. 305-320).Google Scholar
  141. Tillemans, T.J.F. (1990). Materials for the Study of Āryadeva, Dharmapāla and Candrakīrti: The Catuh.śataka of Āryadeva, Chapters XII and XIII, with the Commentaries of Dharmapāla and Candrakīrti. Wien: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.Google Scholar
  142. Tucci, G. (1930). On Some Aspects of the Doctrines of Maitreyanātha and Asanga. Calcutta: Calcutta University Readership Lectures.Google Scholar
  143. Tucci, G. (1932). The Commentaries on the Prajñāpāramitās, Volume 1: The Abhisamayāla} kārāloka of Haribhadra, Gaekwad's Oriental Series, #62 Baroda. Oriental Institute.Google Scholar
  144. Tucci, G. (1947). Minor sanskrit texts on the Prajñāpāramitā: 1. The Prajñā-pāramitāpindartha of Dinnāga. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1/2, 53-75.Google Scholar
  145. Weber, M. (1964). Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Glencoe: Free Press.Google Scholar
  146. Werner, K. (1983). Bodhi and Arhataphala: From early Buddhism to early Mahāyāna. Buddhist Studies Ancient and Modern, 167-181.Google Scholar
  147. Willemen, C., Desein, B. & Cox, C. (1998). Sarvāstivāda Buddhist Scholasticism, Handbuch der Orientalistik: Abt. 2, Indien; Bd. 11. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  148. Wylie, T. (1959). A standard system of Tibetan transcription. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 22, 261-267.Google Scholar
  149. Yü-chia, C. (1987). The explanation of the twenty fold Mahāyāna Samgha in Tsong kha pa's mNgon par rtogs pa'i rgyan legs bshad ser gyi phreng ba (in Chinese). Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal: Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies 1, 181-228.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Apple
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Religious StudiesUniversity of AlabamaTuscaloosaU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations