Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 14, Issue 8, pp 773–785 | Cite as

A pooled analysis of case–control studies of thyroid cancer: cigarette smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea

  • Wendy J. Mack
  • Susan Preston-Martin
  • Luigino Dal Maso
  • Rosaria Galanti
  • Min Xiang
  • Silvia Franceschi
  • Arne Hallquist
  • Fan Jin
  • Laurence Kolonel
  • Carlo La Vecchia
  • Fabio Levi
  • Athena Linos
  • Eiliv Lund
  • Anne McTiernan
  • Kiyohiko Mabuchi
  • Eva Negri
  • Gun Wingren
  • Elaine Ron


Objective: To analyze the role of smoking, alcohol, coffee and tea in relation to thyroid cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of 14 case–control studies conducted in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Methods: The sample consisted of 2725 thyroid cancer cases (2247 females, 478 males) and 4776 controls (3699 females, 1077 males). Conditional logistic regression with stratification on study, age at diagnosis, and gender was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Thyroid cancer risk was reduced in persons who had ever smoked. The relationship was more pronounced in current smokers (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.6–0.7) than former smokers (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.8–1.1). There were significant trends of reduced risk with greater duration and frequency of smoking. For consumption of wine and beer, there was a significant trend of decreasing thyroid cancer risk (p = 0.02) that was not maintained after adjustment for current smoking (p = 0.12). Thyroid cancer risk was not associated with consumption of coffee or tea. These findings were consistent in both gender-specific and histology-specific (papillary and follicular) analyses. Conclusions: Pooled analyses of these geographically diverse case–control data indicate a reduced thyroid cancer risk associated with current smoking. A reduced risk associated with alcohol was eliminated after adjustment for smoking, and caffeinated beverages did not alter thyroid cancer risk.

alcohol caffeine case–control smoking thyroid neoplasms 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendy J. Mack
    • 1
  • Susan Preston-Martin
    • 2
  • Luigino Dal Maso
    • 3
  • Rosaria Galanti
    • 4
  • Min Xiang
    • 2
  • Silvia Franceschi
    • 5
  • Arne Hallquist
    • 6
  • Fan Jin
    • 7
  • Laurence Kolonel
    • 8
  • Carlo La Vecchia
    • 9
  • Fabio Levi
    • 10
  • Athena Linos
    • 11
  • Eiliv Lund
    • 12
  • Anne McTiernan
    • 13
  • Kiyohiko Mabuchi
    • 14
  • Eva Negri
    • 15
  • Gun Wingren
    • 16
  • Elaine Ron
    • 14
  1. 1.Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Servizio di EpidemiologiaCentro di Riferimento OncologicoAvianoItaly
  4. 4.Centre for Tobacco PreventionHuddingeSweden
  5. 5.International Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance
  6. 6.Department of Oncology–PathologyKarolinska Institute, RadiumhemmetStockholmSweden
  7. 7.Shanghai Cancer InstituteShanghaiPeople's Republic of China
  8. 8.Cancer Research Center of HawaiiUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  9. 9.Istituto di Biometria e Statistica MedicaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  10. 10.Unité d'épidémiologie du cancerRegistre Vaudois de TumeursLausanneSwitzerland
  11. 11.Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Athens Medical SchoolUniversity of AthensAthensGreece
  12. 12.Institute for Community MedicineUniversity of TromsöTromsöNorway
  13. 13.Cancer Prevention Research ProgramFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  14. 14.Radiation Epidemiology BranchNational Cancer InstituteRockvilleUSA
  15. 15.Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario NegriMilanItaly
  16. 16.Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health SciencesLinkoping UniversityLinkopingSweden

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