International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 321–351 | Cite as

Behavior, Diet, and Movements of the Sulawesi Crested Black Macaque (Macaca nigra)

  • Timothy G. O'Brien
  • Margaret F. Kinnaird


We present the first field study of activity budgets, diet and ranging patterns of the Sulawesi crested black macaque, Macaca nigra, one of seven macaque species endemic to Sulawesi, Indonesia. We studied three crested macaque groups, ranging in size from 50 to 97 individuals, for 18 months in the Tangkoko-DuaSudara Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi. They spent 59% of the day moving and procuring food, especially fruits, and 41% of the day resting and socializing. Their diet is composed of more than 145 species of fruit (66% of observed feeding bouts), vegetative material (2.5%), invertebrates (31.5%), and occasional vertebrate prey. Group differences were more pronounced than seasonal or diurnal differences. Specifically, the largest group moved farther during the day, moved at a faster and more uniform rate, ate less fruit, rested more, and socialized less than the smaller groups did. The largest group had the largest home range, but it included less primary forest and more disturbed habitat than the ranges of smaller groups. There are individual differences in activity budgets of adult males and females in time spent moving, resting, feeding, and socializing that may reflect differences in reproductive strategies of males versus females. The behavior of large juveniles is more similar to that of adults than to that of small juveniles. Daily movements and use of home range are correlated with diet. Macaques moved shorter distances as the proportion of time spent feeding on fruit increased, and the top four dietary items accounted for most of the variance in entry into hectare blocks of home range.

Sulawesi crested black macaque Macaca nigra activity budget diet ranging patterns 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albrecht, G. H. (1978). The craniofacial morphology of the Sulawesi macaques. Contrib. Primatol. Vol. 13, S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  2. Altmann, J. (1974a). Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behavior 49: 227–265.Google Scholar
  3. Altmann, S. (1974b). Baboons, space, time, and energy. Am. Zool. 14: 221–248.Google Scholar
  4. Altmann, J. (1980). Baboon Mothers and Infants, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  5. Barton, R. A., Whiten, A., Strum, S. C., Byrne, R. W., and Simpson, A. J. (1992). Habitat use and resource availability in baboons. Anim. Behav. 43: 831–844.Google Scholar
  6. Bernstein, I. S., and Baker, S. C. (1988). Activity patterns in a captive group of Celebes black apes (Macaca nigra). Folia Primatol. 51: 61–75.Google Scholar
  7. Boinski, S. (1987). Habitat use by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica. Folia Primatol. 49: 151–167.Google Scholar
  8. Butynski, T. M. (1990). Comparative ecology of blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in high-and low-density subpopulations. Ecol. Monogr. 60: 1–26.Google Scholar
  9. Chapman, C. A., Wrangham, R. W., and Chapman, L. J. (1995). Ecological constraints on group size: An analysis of spider monkey and chimpanzee subgroups. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 36: 59–70.Google Scholar
  10. Cheney, D. L. (1977). The acquisition of rank and the development of reciprocal alliances among free-ranging immature baboons. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 2: 303–318.Google Scholar
  11. Chivers, D. J. (1974). The siamang in Malaya. Contrib. Primatol. Vol. 4, S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  12. Ciani, A. C., Stanyon, R., Scheffrahn, W., and Sampurno, B. (1989). Evidence of gene flow between Sulawesi macaques. Am. J. Primatol. 17: 257–270.Google Scholar
  13. Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.). (1977). Primate Ecology, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  14. Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1977). Some aspects of intraspecific variation in feeding and ranging behavior in primates. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Primate Ecology, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  15. Clutton-Brock, T. H., and Harvey, P. (1977). Species differences in feeding and ranging behavior in primates. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Primate Ecology, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  16. Davidge, C. (1978). Activity patterns of chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) at Cape Point. Zool. Afr. 13: 329–350.Google Scholar
  17. Dittus, W. (1977). The social regulation of population density and age-sex distribution in the toque monkey. Behavior 63: 281–322.Google Scholar
  18. Eisenberg, J. F., Muckenhirn, N. A., and Rudran, R. (1972). The relation between ecology and social structure in primates. Science 176: 863–874.Google Scholar
  19. Fooden, J. (1969). Taxonomy and evolution of the monkeys of the Celebes (primates: Cercopithecidae). Biblio. Primatol. 10, S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  20. Fooden, J., and Lanyon, S. M. (1989). Blood-protein allele frequencies and phylogenetic relationships in Macaca: A review. Am. J. Primatol. 17: 209–214.Google Scholar
  21. Fragaszy, D. M., and Boinski, S. (1995) Patterns of individual diet choice and efficiency of foraging in wedge-capped capuchin monkeys (Cebus olivaceus). J. Comp. Psychol. 109: 1–10.Google Scholar
  22. Groves, C. P. (1980). Speciation in Macaca: The view from Sulawesi. In Lindburg, D. G. (ed.), The Macaques: Studies in Ecology, Behavior and Evolution, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Hadama, Y., Suryobroto, B., Takanaka, O., Iwamoto, M., Watanabe, T., and Kawamoto, Y. (1985) Distribution of three species of macaque in the northern peninsula of Sulawesi. Kyoto Univ. Overseas Res. Rep. Stud. Asian Non-Hum. Primates 6: 19–30.Google Scholar
  24. Hadidian, J. (1985). Yawning in an Old World monkey, Macaca nigra (Primates: Cercopithecidae). Behavior 75: 133–147.Google Scholar
  25. International Union for the Conservation of Nature (1991). Atlas of Tropical Rainforests, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  26. Janson, C. J. (1984). Female choice and mating system of the brown capuchin monkey Cebus apella. Z. Tierpsychol. 65: 177–200.Google Scholar
  27. Kawamoto, Y., Takenaka, O., Suryobroto, B., and Brotoisworo, E. (1985). Genetic differentiation of Sulawesi macaques. Kyoto Univ. Overseas Res. Rep. Stud. Asian Non-Hum. Primates 5: 41–61.Google Scholar
  28. Kinnaird, M. F. (1990). Behavioral and Demographic Response to Habitat Change by the Tana River Crested Mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus galeritus), Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
  29. Kinnaird, M. F., and O'Brien, T. G. (1994). Intergroup interactions in Macaca nigra: A random walk or resource defense. Proceedings of the XV Congress of the International Primatological Society (abstract).Google Scholar
  30. Kinnaird, M. F., O'Brien, T. G., and Suryadi, S. (1996). Population fluctuation in Sulawesi red-knobbed hornbills: Tracking figs in space and time. Auk 113: 431–440.Google Scholar
  31. Klein, L. L., and Klein, D. J. (1977). Feeding behavior of the Columbian spider monkey, Ateles belzebuth. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Primate Ecology, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  32. Kohlhaas, A. K. (1993). Behavior and Ecology of Macaca nigrescens: Behavioral and Social Responses to the Environment and Fruit Availability, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  33. Kurup, G. U., and Kumar, A. (1992). Time budget and activity patterns of the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus). Int. J. Primatol. 14: 27–39.Google Scholar
  34. Lawes, M. J., and Piper, S. E. (1992). Activity patterns in free-ranging Samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis ertyhrarchus Peters, 1852) at the southern range limit. Folia Primatol. 59: 186–202.Google Scholar
  35. Leighton, M. (1993). Modeling dietary selectivity by Bornean orangutans: Evidence for integration of multiple criteria in fruit selection. Int. J. Primatol. 14: 257–313.Google Scholar
  36. Lowen, C., and Dunbar, R. I. M. (1994). Territory size and defendability in primates. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 33: 347–354.Google Scholar
  37. Mitani, J. C., and Rodman, P. (1979). Territoriality: the relation of ranging pattern and home range size to defendability with an analysis of territoriality among primate species. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 5: 241–251.Google Scholar
  38. Norconk, M. A., and Kinzey, W. G. (1994). Challenge of Neotropical frugivory: Travel patterns of spider monkeys and bearded sakis. Am. J. Primatol. 34: 171–183.Google Scholar
  39. Oates, J. F. (1987). Food distribution and foraging behavior. In Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R., Wrangham, R. W., and Struhsaker, T. T. (eds.), Primate Societies, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  40. Oates, J. F., Whitesides, G. H., Davies, A. G., Waterman, P. G., Green, S. M., DaSilva, G. L., and Mole, S. (1990). Determinants of variation in tropical forest primate biomass: New evidence from Africa. Ecology 71: 328–343.Google Scholar
  41. O'Brien, T. G. (1991). Female-male social interactions in wedge-capped capuchin monkeys: Benefits and costs of group living. Anim. Behav. 41: 555–567.Google Scholar
  42. O'Brien, T. G., and Kinnaird, M. F. (1994). Preliminary observations on fruit patch choice in Macaca nigra. Proceedings of the XV Congress of the International Primatological Society (abstract).Google Scholar
  43. O'Brien, T. G., and Kinnaird, M. F. (1996). Declining populations of mammals and birds of North Sulawesi. Oryx 30: 150–156.Google Scholar
  44. O'Brien, T. G., and Robinson, J. G. (1991). Allomaternal care by female wedge-capped capuchin monkeys: Effect of age, rank and relatedness. Behavior 119: 30–50.Google Scholar
  45. O'Brien, T. G., and Robinson, J. G. (1993). Stability of social relationships in female wedge-capped capuchin monkeys. In Periera, M., and Fairbanks, L. (eds.), Juvenile Primates: Life History, Development and Behavior, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Post, D. (1981). Activity patterns of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in the Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Anim. Behav. 29: 357–374.Google Scholar
  47. Post, D., Hausfater, G., and McCuskey, S. (1980). Feeding behavior of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus): Relationship to age, gender and dominance rank. Folia Primatol. 34: 170–195.Google Scholar
  48. Reed, C. R., O'Brien, T. G., and Kinnaird, M. F. (1997). Male social behavior and dominance hierarchy in the Sulawesi crested black macaque (Macaca nigra). Int. J. Primatol. 18: 247–260.Google Scholar
  49. Richard, A. F., Goldstein, S. J., and Dewar, R. E. (1989). Weed macaques: The evolutionary implications of macaque feeding ecology. Int. J. Primatol. 10: 569–594.Google Scholar
  50. Robinson, J. G. (1986). Seasonal variation in use of time and space by the wedge-capped capuchin monkey, Cebus olivaceus: Implications for foraging theory. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 431: 1–60.Google Scholar
  51. Rosenbaum, B. (1996). Patterns and Determinants of Abundance for the Sulawesi Crested Black Macaque (Macaca nigra) on Bacan Island, Indonesia, with Notes on Its Conservation, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  52. Rosenbaum, B., Kinnaird, M. F., and O'Brien, T. G. (1996). Population densities of Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) on Bacan and Sulawesi, Indonesia: Effects of habitat disturbance and hunting (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  53. Seyfarth, R. M. (1977). A model of social grooming among adult female monkeys. Anim. Behav. 24: 917–938.Google Scholar
  54. Seyfarth, R. M. (1978). Social relationships among adult male and female baboons, 1. Behavior during sexual consortships. Behavior 64: 204–226.Google Scholar
  55. Sokal, R. R., and Rohlf, F. J. (1981). Biometry, Freeman Press, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  56. Struhsaker, T. T., and Leland, L. (1979). Socioecology of five sympatric monkey species in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. Adv. Stud. Behav. 9: 159–228.Google Scholar
  57. Sugardjito, J., Southwick, C. H., Supriatna, J., Kohlhaas, A., Baker, S., Erwin, J., Froelich, K., and Lerche, N. (1989). Population survey of macaques in Northern Sulawesi. Am. J. Primatol. 18: 285–301.Google Scholar
  58. Terborgh, J. (1983). Five New World Primates: A Study in Comparative Ecology, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  59. Thierry, B. (1984). Clasping behavior in Macaca tonkeana. Behavior 89: 1–28.Google Scholar
  60. Thierry, B. (1990). Feedback loop between kinship and dominance: The macaque model. J. Theor. Biol. 145: 511–521.Google Scholar
  61. Thierry, B., Anderson, J. R., Demaria, C., and Petit, O. (1994). Tonkean macaque behavior from the perspective of the evolution of Sulawesi macaques. Curr. Primatol. 2: 103–117.Google Scholar
  62. Thorington, R. W., and Groves, C. P. (1970). An annotated classification of the Cercopithecoidea. In Napier, J. R., and Napier, P. H. (eds.), Old World Monkeys: Evolution, Systematics and Behavior, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  63. Walters, J. R., and Seyfarth, R. M. (1987). Conflict and cooperation. In Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R., Wrangham, R. W., and Struhsaker, T. T. (eds.), Primate Societies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  64. Waser, P. (1975). Monthly variations in the feeding and activity of the mangabey, Cercocebus albigena. E. Afr. Wildl. J. 13: 249–265.Google Scholar
  65. Waser, P., and Wiley, R. H. (1979). Mechanism and evolution of spacing in animals. In Marler, P., and Vandenburg, J. G. (eds.), Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, 3 (Social Behavior and Communication), Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  66. White, G. C., and Garrot, R. A. (1990). Analysis of Wildlife Radio-Tracking Data, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Wrangham, R. W. (1980). An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behavior 75: 262–300.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy G. O'Brien
    • 1
  • Margaret F. Kinnaird
    • 1
  1. 1.Indonesia ProgramWildlife Conservation SocietyBronx

Personalised recommendations