Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 519–535 | Cite as

A Test of the Integration of the Hopelessness and Self-Esteem Theories of Depression in Schoolchildren

Article

Abstract

This prospective study tested the diathesis-stress and symptom components of the integration of the hopelessness and self-esteem theories of depression in a sample of third- and seventh-grade children. The procedure involved an initial assessment of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and depressogenic inferential styles about causes, consequences, and the self. The procedure also involved a follow-up assessment, 6 weeks later, in which depressive symptoms and the occurrence of negative events were assessed. In line with the integrative theory, depressogenic inferential styles interacted with negative events to predict increases in hopelessness but not nonhopelessness depression symptoms in boys with low but not high self-esteem. At the same time, contrary to the integrative theory, depressogenic inferential styles interacted with negative events to predict increases in hopelessness but not nonhopelessness depression symptoms in girls with high but not low self-esteem.

hopelessness theory of depression self-esteem children preadolescents 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abela, J. R. Z. (2001). The hopelessness theory of depression: A test of the diathesis-stress and causal mediation components in third and seventh grade children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 241-254.Google Scholar
  2. Abela, J. R. Z. (2002). Depressive mood reactions to failure in the achievement domain: A test of the integration of the hopelessness and self-esteem theories of depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 531-552.Google Scholar
  3. Abela, J. R. Z., & D'Alessandro, D. U. (2001). An examination of the symptom component of the hopelessness theory of depression in a sample of schoolchildren. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 15, 33-47.Google Scholar
  4. Abela, J. R. Z., & Sarin, S. (2002). Cognitive vulnerability to hopelessness depression: A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 811-829.Google Scholar
  5. Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358-372.Google Scholar
  6. Allgood-Merten, B., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Hops, H. (1990). Sex differences and adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 55-63.Google Scholar
  7. Alloy, L. B., & Clements, C. M. (1998). Hopelessness theory of depression: Tests of the symptom component. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 303-335.Google Scholar
  8. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders(4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  9. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. O. (1978). Social origins of depression: A study of psychiatric disorder in women. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioural sciences(2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Conley, C. S., Haines, B. A., Hilt, L. M., & Metalksy, G. I. (2001). The Children's Attributional Style Interview: Developmental tests of cognitive diathesis-stress theories of depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 445-463.Google Scholar
  13. Coyne, J. C. (1976). Toward an interaction description of depression. Psychiatry, 39, 28-40.Google Scholar
  14. Dixon, J. F., & Ahrens, A. H. (1992). Stress and attributional styles as predictors of self-reported depression in children. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 623-634.Google Scholar
  15. Hammen, C. L., Adrian, C., & Hiroto, D. (1988). A longitudinal test of the attributional vulnerability model of depression in children at risk for depression. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 37-46.Google Scholar
  16. Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y., & Siler, M. (2001). A prospective test of the hopelessness theory of depression in adolescence. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 607-632Google Scholar
  17. Hilsman, R., & Garber, J. (1995). A test of the cognitive diathesis-stress model of depression in children: Academic stressors, attributional style, perceived competence, and control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 370-380.Google Scholar
  18. Joiner, T. E., Steer, R. A., Abramson, L. Y., Alloy, L. B., Metalsky, G. I., & Schmidt, N. B. (2001). Hopelessness depression as a distinet dimension of depressive symptoms among clinical and non-clinical samples. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 523-536.Google Scholar
  19. Kanner, A. D., Feldman, S. S., Weinberger, D. A., & Ford, M. E. (1987). Uplifts, hassles, and adaptational outcomes in early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 7, 371-394.Google Scholar
  20. Klerman, G. L., Lavori, P. W., Rice, J., Reich, T., Endicott, J., Andreason, N. C., et al. (1985). Birth-cohort trends in rates of major depressive disorder among relatives of patients with affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 689-695.Google Scholar
  21. Kovacs, M. (1981). Rating scales to assess depression in school children. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 46, 305-315.Google Scholar
  22. Metalsky, G. I., & Joiner, T. E., Jr. (1997). The Hopelessness Depression Symptom Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 21, 359-384.Google Scholar
  23. Metalsky, G. I., Joiner, T. E., Jr., Hardin, T. S., & Abramson, L. Y. (1993). Depressive reactions to failure in a naturalistic setting: A test of the hopelessness and self-esteem theories of depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 101-109.Google Scholar
  24. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1992). Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: A five-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 405-422.Google Scholar
  25. Panak, W. F., & Garber, J. (1992). Role of aggression, rejection, and attributions in the prediction of depression in children. Development and Psychopathology, 4(1), 145-165.Google Scholar
  26. Robinson, N. S., Garber, J., & Hilsman, R. (1995). Cognitions and stress: Direct and moderating effects on depressive versus externalizing symptoms during the junior high school transition. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 453-463.Google Scholar
  27. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Seligman, M. E. P., Peterson, C., Kaslow, N. J., Tenenbaum, R. L., Alloy, L. B., & Abramson, L. Y. (1984). Attributional style and depressive symptoms among children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 235-241.Google Scholar
  29. Silber, E., & Tippet, J. (1965). Self-esteem: Clinical assessment and measurement validation. Psychological Reports, 16, 1017-1071.Google Scholar
  30. Southall, D., & Roberts, J. E. (2002). Attributional style and self-esteem in vulnerability to adolescent depressive symptoms following life stressors: A 14-week prospective study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 563-579.Google Scholar
  31. Turner, J. E., & Cole, D. A. (1994). Developmental differences in cognitive diatheses for child depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 15-32.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMcGill UniversityCanada

Personalised recommendations