Plant and Soil

, Volume 256, Issue 1, pp 67–83

The role of root exudates and allelochemicals in the rhizosphere

Article

Abstract

Plant roots serve a multitude of functions in the plant including anchorage, provision of nutrients and water, and production of exudates with growth regulatory properties. The root–soil interface, or rhizosphere, is the site of greatest activity within the soil matrix. Within this matrix, roots affect soil structure, aeration and biological activity as they are the major source of organic inputs into the rhizosphere, and are also responsible for depletion of large supplies of inorganic compounds. Roots are very complicated morphologically and physiologically, and their metabolites are often released in large quantities into the soil rhizosphere from living root hairs or fibrous root systems. Root exudates containing root-specific metabolites have critical ecological impacts on soil macro and microbiota as well as on the whole plant itself. Through the exudation of a wide variety of compounds, roots impact the soil microbial community in their immediate vicinity, influence resistance to pests, support beneficial symbioses, alter the chemical and physical properties of the soil, and inhibit the growth of competing plant species. In this review, we outline recent research on root exudation and the role of allelochemicals in the rhizosphere by studying the case of three plants that have been shown to produce allelopathic root exudates: black walnut, wheat and sorghum

allelopathy black walnut excretion exudate rhizosphere root root exudation root hair secondary products secretion sorghum wheat 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Able J A, Rathus C and Godwin I D 2001 The investigation of optimal bombardment parameters for transient and stable transgene expression in sorghum. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Plant 37, 341–348.Google Scholar
  2. Arumuganathan K and Earle E D 1991 Nuclear DNA content of some important plant species. Plant. Mol. Biol. Rep. 9, 208–218.Google Scholar
  3. Bach-Jensen L, Courtois B, Olodfsdotter M, Shen L, Mauleon R P and Li Z 1999 Location gene controlling rice allelopathic effects against Echinochloa crus-galli. In Book of Abstracts, Second World Congress on Allelopathy-Critical Analysis and Future Prospects. 53 pp. Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  4. Battey N H and Blackbourn H D 1993 The control of exocitosis in plant cells. New Phytol. 125, 307–308.Google Scholar
  5. Baziramakenga R, Simard R R and Leroux G D 1994 Effects of benzoic and cinnamic acids on growth, mineral composition, and chlorophyll content of soybean. J. Chem. Ecol. 20(11) 2821–2833.Google Scholar
  6. Baziramakenga R, Leroux G D and Simard R R 1995 Effects of benzoic and cinnamic acids on membrane permeability of soybean roots. J. Chem. Ecol. 21, 1271–1285.Google Scholar
  7. Bennetzen J L 2000 Comparative sequence analysis of plant nuclear genomes. Microcolinearity and its many exceptions. Plant Cell 12, 1021–1030.Google Scholar
  8. Bernston G M 1994 Modeling root architecture: are there tradeoffs between efficiency and potential of resource acquisition? New Phytol. 127, 483.Google Scholar
  9. Blum U, Gerig T M, Worsham A D, Holappa L D and King L D 1992 Allelopathic activity in wheat-conventional till, and fallowconventional till soybean cropping systems. J. Chem. Ecol. 17, 1045–1068.Google Scholar
  10. Bohidar K, Wratten S D and Niemeyer H M 1986 Effects of hydroxamic acids on the resistance of wheat to the aphid Sitobion avenae. Ann. Appl. Biol. 109, 193–198.Google Scholar
  11. Bohm W 1979 Methods of Studying Root Systems. Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  12. Brady N C and Weil R R 1999 The Nature and Property of Soils. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle Hall, NJ.Google Scholar
  13. Brimecombe M J, De Leij Frans A A M and Lynch J M 2001 Nematode community structure as a sensitive indicator of microbial perturbations induced by a genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens strain. Biol. Fertil. Soils 34, 270–275.Google Scholar
  14. Brooks M G 1951 Effect of black walnut trees and their products on other vegetation. West Virginia Agric. Exp. Station Bull. 347, 341–337.Google Scholar
  15. Bucher M 2002 Molecular root bioengineering. In Plant Roots–The Hidden Half. Eds. Y Waisel, A Eshel and U Kafkafi. pp. 279–294. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  16. Bucher M, Schroeer B, Willmitzer L and Riesmeier J W 1997 Two genes encoding extensin-like proteins are predominantly expressed in tomato root hair cells. Plant Mol. Biol. 35, 497–508.Google Scholar
  17. Cakmak I and Marschner H 1988 Increase in membrane permeability and exudation in root of zinc deficient plants. J. Plant Physiol. 132, 356–361.Google Scholar
  18. Caldwell M M 1994 Exploiting nutrients in fertile soil microsites. In Exploitation of Environmental Heterogeneity by Plants. Eds. M M Caldwell and R W Pearcy. pp. 325–347. Acadmic Press, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  19. Chang M, Netzly D H, Butler L G and Lynn D G 1986 Chemical regulation of distance – Characterization of the 1st natural host germination stimulant for Striga asiatica. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 7858–7860.Google Scholar
  20. Cheng H H 1995 Characterization of the mechanisms of allelopathy: modeling and experimental approaches. In Allelopathy: Organisms, Processes, and Applications. Eds. Inderjit, K M M Dakshini and F A Einhellig. pp. 132–141. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  21. Cheng W, Zhang Q, Coleman D C, Caroll C R and Hoffman C A 1996 Is available carbon limiting microbial respiration in the rhizosphere? Soil Biol. Biochem 2, 1283–1288.Google Scholar
  22. Chishaki N and Horiguchi T 1997 Responses of secondary metabolism in plants to nutrient deficiency. Soil. Sci. Plant Nutr. 43, 987–991.Google Scholar
  23. Chrispeels M 1991 Sorting of proteins in the secretory system. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 42, 21.Google Scholar
  24. Chrispeels M and Raikhel N V 1992 Short peptide domains target proteins to plant vacuoles. Cell 68, 613–616.Google Scholar
  25. Claassen N and Steingrobe B 1999 Mechanistic simulation models for a better understanding of nutrient uptake from soil. In Mineral Nutrition of Crops. Fundamental Mechanisms and Implications. Ed. Z Rengel. pp. 327–367. Haworth Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Conkling M, Cheng C, Yamamoto Y and Goodman H 1990 Isolation of transcriptionnally regulated root-specific genes from tobacco. Plant Physiol. 93, 1203–1211.Google Scholar
  27. Crist C R and Sherf A F 1973 Walnut wilt. Cornell University, Horticulture Extension Bulletin. Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  28. Curl E A and Truelove B 1986 The Rhizosphere. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Czarnota M A 2001 Sorghum (Sorghum spp.) root exudates: production, localization, chemical composition, and mode of action. PhD dissertation. Cornell University. 105 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Czarnota M A, Paul R N, Dayan F E, Nimbal C I and Weston L A 2001 Mode of action, localization of production, chemical nature, and activity of sorgoleone: A potent PSII inhibitor in Sorghum spp. root exudates. Weed Tech.15, 813–825.Google Scholar
  31. Dalton B R 1999 The occurence and behavior of phenolic acids in soil environment and their potential involvement in allelochemical interference interactions: methodological limitations in establishing conclusive proof of allelopathy. In Principles and Practices in Plant Ecology: Allelochemical Interaction. Eds. Inderjit, K M M Dakshini and C L Foy. pp. 57–74. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  32. Dana M N and Lerner B R 1990 Black Walnut Toxicity. Purdue University Extension, West Laffayette, IN. 8 pp.Google Scholar
  33. Darrah P R 1993 The rhizosphere and plant nutrition: a quantitative approach. In Plant Nutrition: From Genetic Engineering to Field Practice. Ed. N J Barrow. pp. 3–22. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  34. Davis E F 1928 The toxic principle of Juglans nigra as identified with synthetic juglone, and its effects on tomato and alfalfa plants. Am. J. Bot. 15.Google Scholar
  35. Dayan, F, Kagan I A and Rimando A M 2003 Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway of sorgoleone using retrobiosynthetic NMR analysis. Weed Sci. Soc Am. Abtr. 43, 52.Google Scholar
  36. Dilday R H, Yan W G, Moldenhauer K A K and Gravois K A 1998 Allelopathic activity in rice for controlling aquatic weeds. In Allelopathy in Rice. Ed. M Olodfsdotter. IRRI Publishing, Los Banos, Phillipines.Google Scholar
  37. Dinkelaker B, Hengeler C and Marschner H 1995 Distribution and function of proteoid roots and other root clusters. Bot. Acta 108, 183–200.Google Scholar
  38. Dinkelaker B, Hengeler C, Neumann G, Eltrop L and Marschner H 1997 Root exudates and mobilization of nutrients. In Trees– Contributions to Modern Tree Physiology. Eds. H Rennenberg, W Eschrich and H Ziegler. 441 pp. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  39. Doggett H 1988 Sorghum. Longman Scientific & Technical; Copublished in the United States with John Wiley, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex, UK, New York. 516 pp.Google Scholar
  40. Dolan L 2001a How and where to build a root hair. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 4, 550–554.Google Scholar
  41. Dolan L 2001b The role of ethylene in root hair growth in Arabidopsis. J. of Plant Nutr. and Soil Sci. 164, 141–145.Google Scholar
  42. Dousset S, Morel J L, Jacobson A and Bitton B 2001 Copper biding capacity of root exudates of cultivated plants and associated weeds. Biol. Fertil Soils 34, 230–234.Google Scholar
  43. Draye X, Lin Y R, Qian X Y, Bowers J E, Burow G B, Morrell P L, Peterson D G, Presting G G, Ren S X, Wing R A and Paterson A H 2001 Toward integration of comparative genetic, physical, diversity, and cytomolecular maps for grasses and grains, using the sorghum genome as a foundation. Plant Physiol. 125, 1325–1341.Google Scholar
  44. Duckett C M, Oparka K J, Prior D A M, Dolan L and Roberts K 1994 Dye-coupling in the root epidermis of Arabidopsis is progressively reduced during development. Development 120, 3247–3255.Google Scholar
  45. Duke S O, Scheffler B E, Dayan F E, Weston L A and Ota E 2001 Strategies for using transgenes to produce allelopathic crops. Weed Tech. 15, 826–834.Google Scholar
  46. Duroux L, Delmotte F M, Lancelin J M, Keravis G and Jayallemand C 1998 Insight into naphtoquinone metabolism, B-glucosidasecatalysed hydrolysis of hydrojuglone glucopyrenoside. Biochem. J. 333, 275–283.Google Scholar
  47. Einhellig F A 1986 Mechanisms and mode of action of allelochemicals. In The Science of Allelopathy. Eds. A R Putnam and C S Tang. pp. 171–188. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Einhellig F A 1995 Mechanism of action of allelochemicals in allelopathy. In Allelopathy: Organisms, Processes and Applications. Eds. Inderjit, K M M Dakshini and F A Einhellig. ACS Symposium Series 582. pp. 96–116. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  49. Einhellig F A and Souza I F 1992 Phytotoxicity of sorgoleone found in grain sorghum root exudates. J. Chem. Ecol. 18, 1–11.Google Scholar
  50. Einhellig F A, Rasmussen J A, Hejl A M and Souza I F 1993 Effects of root exudate sorgoleone on photosynthesis. J. Chem. Ecol. 19, 369–375.Google Scholar
  51. Fan T W M 1996 Metabolite profiling by one-and two dimensional NMR analysis of complex mixtures. Prog. Nucl. Magn. Resonance Spectr. 28, 161–219.Google Scholar
  52. Fan T W M, Lane A M, Crowley D and Higashi R M 1997 Comprehensive analysis of organic ligands in whole root exudate using nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 251, 57.Google Scholar
  53. Fan T W M, Lane A N, Shenker M, Bartley J P, Crowley D and Higashi R M 2001 Comprehensive chemical profiling of gramineous plant root exudates using high-resolution NMR and MS. Phytochemistry. 57, 209–221.Google Scholar
  54. Fan T W M, Pedler J, Lane A N, Crowley D and Higashi R M 1997b Comprehensive analysis of organic ligand in whole root exudates using nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Anal. Biochem. 251, 57–68.Google Scholar
  55. Fate, G, Chang M, and Lynn D G 1990 Control of germination in Striga asiatica – chemistry of spatial definition. Plant Physiol. 93, 201–207.Google Scholar
  56. Feldman L J 1984 Regulation of root development. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35, 223–242.Google Scholar
  57. Fitter A H 1994 Architecture and biomass allocation as components of the plastic response of root systems to soil heterogeneity. In Exploitation of Environmental Heterogeneity by Plants. Eds. M M Caldwell and R W Pearcy. pp. 305–323. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  58. Funk D, T., Case P J, Rietveld W J and Phares R E 1979 Effect of juglone on the growth of coniferous seedlings. For. Sci. 25, 452–454.Google Scholar
  59. Gagnon H, Seguin J, Bleichert E, Tahara S and Ibrahim R K 1992 Biosynthesis of white lupin isoflavonoids from [U-14C] Lphenylalanine and their release into the culture medium. Plant Physiol. 100, 76–79.Google Scholar
  60. Gale M D and Devos K M 1998 Comparative genetics in the grasses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 1971–1974.Google Scholar
  61. Gerke J 2000 Mathematical modelling of iron uptake by graminaceous species as affected by iron forms in soil and phytosideriphore efflux. J. Plant Nutr. 23, 1579–1587.Google Scholar
  62. Gerke J, Beissner L and Roemer W 2000a The quantiative effect of chemical phosphate mobilization by carboxylate anion on p uptake by a single root. I. The basic concept and determination of soil parameters. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 163, 207–212.Google Scholar
  63. Gerke J, Roemer W and Beissner L 2000b The quantitative effect of chemical phosphate mobilization by carboxylate anions on P uptake by a single root. II. The importance of soil and plant parameters for uptake of mobilized P. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 163, 213–219.Google Scholar
  64. Givovich A, Sandstrom J, Niemeyer H M and Pettersson J 1994 Presence of hydroxamic acid glucoside in wheat phloem sap and its consequences for performance of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Homoptera: Aphididae). J. Chem. Ecol. 20, 1923–1930.Google Scholar
  65. Gonzalez V M, Kazimir J, Nimbal C, Weston L A and Cheniae G M 1997 Inhibition of a photosystem II electron transfer reaction by the natural product sorgoleone. J. Agric. and Food Chem. 45, 1415–1421.Google Scholar
  66. Grayston S J, Campbell C D, Vaughan D and Jones D 1995 Influence of root exudate heterogeneity on microbial diversity in the rhizosphere. J. Exp. Bot. 46, 27.Google Scholar
  67. Grierson C S, Parker J S and Kemp A C 2001 Arabidopsis genes with roles in root hair development. J.Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 164, 131–140.Google Scholar
  68. Groleau-Renaud V, Plantureux S, Tebeleih A and Guckert A 2000 Influence of microflora and composition of root bathing solution on root exudation of maize plants. J. Plant Nutr. 23, 1283–1301.Google Scholar
  69. Guenzi W D, McCalla T M and Nordstadt F A 1967 Presence and persistence of phytotoxic substances in wheat, oat, corn and sorghum residues. Agron. J. 59, 163–165.Google Scholar
  70. Guern J, Renaudin J P and Brown S C 1987 The compartimentation of secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. In Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants. Eds. F Constabel and I K Vasil. 43 pp. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  71. Hale M G, Moore L D and Griffin G J 1978 Root exudate and exudation. In Interactions Between Non-pathogenic Soil Microorganisms and Plants. Eds. V R Domergues and S V Krupa. 163 pp. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  72. Hale M G and Orcutt D M 1987 Allelochemical stress. In The Physiology of Plants Under Stress. Eds. M G Hale and D M Orcutt. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY.Google Scholar
  73. Heim A, Brunner I, Frey B, Frossard E and Luster J 2001 Root exudation, organic acids, and element distribution in roots of Norway spruce seedling treated with aluminum in hydroponics. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 164(50), 519–526.Google Scholar
  74. Helj A M, Einhellig F A and Rasmussen J A 1993 Effects of juglone on growth, photosynthesis, and respiration. J. Chem. Ecol. 19, 559–568.Google Scholar
  75. Hinsinger P 1998 How do plants acquire mineral nutrients? Chemical processes involved in the rhyzosphere. Adv. Agron. 64, 225–265.Google Scholar
  76. Hinsinger P 2001 Bioavailability of soil inorganic P in the rhizosphere as affected by root induced-chemical changes: a review. Plant Soil 237, 173–195.Google Scholar
  77. Hodge A, Grayston S J and Ord B G 1996 A novel method for characterization and quantification of plant root exudates. Plant Soil 184, 97–104.Google Scholar
  78. Hodge A and Millard P 1998 Effect of elevated CO2on carbon partitioning and exudate release from Plantago lanceolata seedlings. Physiol. Plant. 103, 280–286.Google Scholar
  79. Holappa L D and Blum U 1991 Effects of exogenously applied ferulic acid, a potential allelopathic compunds, on leaf growth, water utilization, and endogenous abscisic acid levels of tomato, cucumber, and bean. J. Chem. Ecol. 17, 865–886.Google Scholar
  80. Hopkins B G, Whitney D A, Lamond R E and Jolley V D 1998 Phytosiderophore released by sorghum, wheat and corn under zinc deficiency. J. Plant Nutr. 21, 2623–2637.Google Scholar
  81. Huang P M, Wang M C and Wang M K 1999 Catalytic transformation of phenolic compounds in the soil. In Principles and Practices in Plant Ecology: Allelochemical Interactions. Eds. Inderjit, K M M Dakshini and C L Foy. pp. 287–306. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  82. Hubel F and Beck E 1993 In-situ determination of the P-relations around the promary root of maize with respect to inorganic and phytate-P. Plant Soil 157, 1–9.Google Scholar
  83. Inderjit and Dakshini K M M 1999 Bioassays for allelopathy: interactions of soil organic and inorganic constituents. In Principles and Practices in Plant Ecology: Allelochemicals Interactions. Eds. Inderjit, K M M Dakshini and C L Foy. pp. 35–44. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  84. Inderjit and Weston L A 2003 Root exudation: an overview. In Root Ecology. Eds. de Kroon and E J W Visser. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. (in press).Google Scholar
  85. Janczareck M, Urbanick-Sypniewska T and Skorupska A 1997 Effect of authentic flavonoids and the exudate of clover roots on growth rate and inducing ability of nod genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum. Microbiol. Res. 152, 93–98.Google Scholar
  86. Johnson J F, Allan D L, Vance C P and Weiblen G 1996 Root carbon dioxide fixation by phosphorus deficient Lupinus albus. Contribution to organic acid exudation by proteoid roots. Plant Physiol. 112(1) 31–41.Google Scholar
  87. Jones D L and Darrah P R 1995 Influx and efflux of organic acids across the soil-root interface of Zea mays l. and its implications in rhizosphere C flow. Plant Soil 173, 103–109.Google Scholar
  88. Jones D L, Edwards A C, Donachie K and Darrah P R 1994 Role of proteinaceous amino acids released in root exudates in nutrient acquisition from the rhizosphere. Plant Soil 158, 183–192.Google Scholar
  89. Jose S and Gillespie A R 1998a Allelopathy in black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) alley cropping. I. Spatio-temporal variation in soil juglonde in a black walnut-corn (Zea mays L.) alley cropping system in the midwestern USA. Plant Soil 203, 191–197.Google Scholar
  90. Jose S and Gillespie A R 1998b Allelopathy in black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) alley cropping. II. effects of juglone on hydroponically grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) growth and physiology. Plant Soil 203, 199–205.Google Scholar
  91. Junk A O 2002 Dynamics of nutrient movement at the soil-root interface. In Plant Roots – the Hidden Half. Eds. Y Waisel, A Eshel and U Kafkafi. pp. 587–616. Marcel Dekker, Inc New York.Google Scholar
  92. Keller H and Romer W 2001 Cu, Zn, and Cd acquisition by two spinach cultivars depending on P nutrition and root exudation. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 164, 335–342.Google Scholar
  93. Kozba J and Einhellig F A 1987 The effects of ferulic acid on the mineral nutrient of grain sorghum. Plant Soil 98, 99–109.Google Scholar
  94. Lee K C and Campbell R W 1969 nature and occurence of juglone in Juglans nigra. Hortsci. 4, 297–298.Google Scholar
  95. Lehmann R G, Cheng H H and Harsh J B 1987 Oxidation of phenolic acids by iron and manganese oxides. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51, 352–356.Google Scholar
  96. Lerouge P 1994 Symbiotic host-specificity between leguminous plants and rhizobia is determined by sustitued and acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signals. Glycobiology. 4, 127–134.Google Scholar
  97. Leszczynski B, Dixon A F G, Bakowski T and Matok H 1995 Cereal allelochemicals in grain aphid control. Allelopathy J 2, 31–36.Google Scholar
  98. Liang P and Pardee A B 1992 Differential display of eukariotic messenger RNA by means of the polymerase chain reaction. Science 257, 967–971.Google Scholar
  99. Lodhi M A K, Bilal R and Malik K A 1987 Allelopathy in agroecosystems: wheat phytotoxicity and its possible roles in crop rotation. J. Chem. Ecol. 13, 1881–1891.Google Scholar
  100. Ma J F and Nomoto K 1993 Two related biosynthetic pathways of mugineic acid in gramineous plants. Plant Physiol. 102, 373–378.Google Scholar
  101. Marschner H 1995 Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  102. Meazza G, Scheffler B E, Tellez M R, Rimando A M, Romagni J G, Duke S O, Nanayakkara D, Khan I A, Abourashed E A and Dayan F E 2002 The inhibitory activity of natural products on plant p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. Phytochemistry. 60, 281–288.Google Scholar
  103. Merbach W, Mirus E, knof G, Remus R, Ruppel S and Russow R 1999 Release of carbon and nitrogen compounds by plant roots and their possible ecological importance. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 162, 373–383.Google Scholar
  104. Mersie W and Singh M 1993 Phenolic acids affect photosynthesis and protein synthesis by isolated leaf cells of velvetleaf. J. Chem. Ecol. 19, 1293–1301.Google Scholar
  105. Michael G 2001 The control of root hair formation: suggested mechanisms. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 164, 111–119.Google Scholar
  106. Mori S 1994. In Biochemistry of MetalMicronutrients in the Rhizosphere. Eds.J A Manthey, D E Crowley and D G Luster. Lewis, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  107. Mullet J E, Klein R R and Klein P E 2002 Sorghum bicolor-an important species for comparative grass genomics and a source of beneficial genes for agriculture. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 5, 118–121.Google Scholar
  108. Mulligan J T and Long S R 1985 Induction of Rhizobium meliloti nodC expression by plant exudate requires NodD. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 6609–6613.Google Scholar
  109. Muminovic S 1991 Allelopathic influence of straw of crops on the germination, height, and weight of weeds. pp. 39: 29–37. Radovi Poljoprivrednog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu.Google Scholar
  110. Mylona P, Moerman M, Yang W C, T. G, Van de Kerchove J, Van Kammen A, Bisseling T and Franssen H J 1994 The root epidemis-specific pea gene RH2 is homologous to a pathogenisrelated gene. Plant Mol. Biol. 26, 39–50.Google Scholar
  111. Nair M G, Safir G R and Siqueira J O 1991 Isolation and identification of vascular-arbuscular mycorrhiza-stimulatory compounds from clover (Trifolium repens) roots. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, 434.Google Scholar
  112. Nardi S, Sessi E, Pizzeghello D, Sturaro A, Rella R and Parvol G 2000 Soil organic matter mobilization by root exudates. Chemosphere 41, 653–658.Google Scholar
  113. Netzly D H and Butler L G 1986 Roots of sorghum exude hydrophobic droplets containing biologically active components. Crop Sci. 26, 775–778.Google Scholar
  114. Neumann G, George E and Romheld V 1998 White lupin–a model plant to study mechanisms involved in root-induced mobilization of sparingly available P-sources. In International Workshop on Role of Environmental and Biological Factors of Toxic and Essential Elements by Plants. Skierniewice, Poland, 1998.Google Scholar
  115. Neumann G, Massonneau A, Martinoia E and Romheld V 1999 Physiological adaptation to phosphorus deficiency during proteoid root development in white lupin. Planta 208, 373.Google Scholar
  116. Neumann G and Romheld V 2000 The release of root exudates as affected bu the plant's physiological status. In The Rhizosphere–Biochemistry and Organic Substances at the Soil-Plant Interface. Eds. R Pinton, Z Varanini and P Nannipieri. pp. 41–93. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York.Google Scholar
  117. Neumann G and Romheld V 1999 Root excretion of carboxylic acids and protons in phosphorus-deficient plants. Plant Soil 211, 121.Google Scholar
  118. Neumann G and Romheld V 2002 Root-induced changes in the ability of nutrients in the rhizosphere. In Plant Roots–the Hidden Half. Eds. Y Waisel, A Eshel and U Kafkafi. pp. 617–649. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  119. Niemeyer H M 1988 Hydroxamic acids (4-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), defense chemicals in the gramineae. Phytochemistry. 27, 3349–3358.Google Scholar
  120. Niemeyer H M and Perez F J 1997 Chromosomal location of genes for hydroxamic acid accumulation in Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) using wheat aneuploids and wheat substitution lines. Heredity 79, 10–14.Google Scholar
  121. Nimbal C I, Pedersen J F, Yerkes C N, Weston L A and Weller S C 1996 Phytotoxicity and distribution of sorgoleone in grain sorghum germplasm. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 1343–1347.Google Scholar
  122. Nishizawa N K and Mori S 1987 The particular vesicles aooearing in barley root cells and its relation to mugeneic acid secretion. J. Plant Nutr. 10, 1013–1020.Google Scholar
  123. Nye P H 1984 On estimating the uptake of nutrients solubilized near roots or other surfaces. J. Soil Sci. 35, 439–445.Google Scholar
  124. Parker J S, Cavell A C, Dolan L, Roberts K and Grierson C S 2000 Genetic interactions during root hair morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 12, 1961–1974.Google Scholar
  125. Paynel F, Murray P J and Cliquet J B 2001 Root exudates: a pathway for short-term N transfer from clover and ryegrass. Plant Soil 229, 235–243.Google Scholar
  126. Pellet D M, Grunes D L and Kochian L 1995 Organic acid exudation as an aluminium-tolerance mecanism in maize (Zea mays L.). Planta Heidelverg 196, 788–795.Google Scholar
  127. Penuelas J, Ribas-Carbo M and Giles L 1996 Effects of allelochemicals of plant respiration and oxygen isotope fractionation by the alternative oxyldase. J. Chem. Ecol. 22, 801–805.Google Scholar
  128. Perez F J 1990 Allelopathic effect of hydroxamic acid of cereals on Avena sativa and A. fatua. Phytochemistry. 29, 773–776.Google Scholar
  129. Phillips D A and Tsai S M 1992 Flavanoids as plant signals to rhizosphere microbes. Mycorrhiza 1, 55–58.Google Scholar
  130. Pramanik M H R, Nagal M, Asao M and Matsui Y 2000 Effect of temperature amd photoperiod on phytotoxic root exudates of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in hydroponic culture. J. Chem. Ecol. 26, 1953–1967.Google Scholar
  131. Quian J H, Doran J W and Walters D T 1997 maize plant contributions to root zone available carbon and microbial transformations of nitrogen. Soil Biol. Biochem. 29, 1451–1462.Google Scholar
  132. Rama Devi S and Prasad M N V 1992 Effect of ferulic acid on growth and hydrolytic enzyme activities of germinated maize seeds. J. Chem. Ecol. 18, 1981–1990.Google Scholar
  133. Rasmussen J A, Hejl A M, Einhellig F A and Thomas J A 1992 Sorgoleone from root exudate inhibits mitochondrial functions. J. Chem. Ecol. 18, 197–207.Google Scholar
  134. Ratnayale M, Leonard R T and Menge A 1978 Root exudation in relation to supply of phosphorus and its possible relevance to mycorrhizal infection. New Phytol. 81, 543–552.Google Scholar
  135. Rice E L 1984 Allelopathy. Academic Press, Orlando, FL. 422 pp.Google Scholar
  136. Rietveld W J 1983 Allelopathic effects of juglone on germination and growth of several herbaceaous and woody species. J. Chem. Ecol. 9, 295–308.Google Scholar
  137. Rimando A M, Dayan F E, Czarnota M A, Weston L A and Duke S O 1998 A new photosystem II electron transfer inhibitor from Sorghum bicolor. J. Nat. Prod. 61, 927–930.Google Scholar
  138. Rizvi S J H and Rizvi V 1992 Exploitation of allelochemicals in improving crop productivity. In Allelopathy: Basics and Applied Aspects. Eds. S J H Rizvi and V Rizvi. pp. 443–472. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  139. Rodriguez I R and Chader G J 1992 A novel method for isolation of tissue-specific genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 3528.Google Scholar
  140. Romheld V and Marschner H 1990 Genotypical differences among graminaceous species in release of phytosideriphores and uptake of iron phytosiderophores. Plant Soil 123, 147–153.Google Scholar
  141. Rougier M 1981 Secretory activity of the root cap. In Plant Carbohydrates II, Extracellular Carbohydrates: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology. Eds. W Tanner and F A Leowus. Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  142. Rovira A D 1969 Plant root exudates. Bot. Rev. 35, 35.Google Scholar
  143. Ryan P R, Delhaize E and Randall P J 1995 Characterization of Alstimulated efflux of malate from the apices of Al-tolerant wheat roots. Planta 196, 103–110.Google Scholar
  144. Sakaguchi T, Nishizawa N K, Nakanishi H and Yoshimura E 1999 The role of potassium in the secretion of megineic acids family phytosiderophores from iron-deficient barley roots. Plant Soil 215, 221–227.Google Scholar
  145. Salomonsson A C, Theander O and Aman P 1978 Quantitative determination by GLC of phenolic acids as ethyl derivatives in cereal straw. J. Agric. Food Chem. 26, 830–835.Google Scholar
  146. Samuel A L, Fernando M and Glass A D M 1992 Immunofluorescent localization of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in barley roots and effects of K nutrition. Plant Physiol. 99.Google Scholar
  147. Sauerbeck D, Nonnen S and Allard J L 1981 Consumption and turnover of photosynthesis in the rhizosphere depending on plant species and growth conditions. Landw. Forschung Sonderheft 37, 207–216.Google Scholar
  148. Scheidemann P and Wetzel A 1997 Identification and characterization of flavanoids in the root exudate of Robinia pseudoacacia. Trees (Berlin) 11, 316–321.Google Scholar
  149. Schilling G, Gransee A, Deubel A, Lezovic G and Ruppel S 1998 Phosphorus availability, root exudates, and microbial activity in the rhizosphere. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci 161, 465–478.Google Scholar
  150. Segura-Aguilar J, Hakman I and Rydstrom J 1992 The effect of 5OH-1,4-naphtoquinone on Norway spruce seeds during germination. Plant Physiol. 100, 1955–1961.Google Scholar
  151. Shilling D G, Liebl R A and Worsham A D 1985 Rye (Secale cereale L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mulch: the suppression of certain broadleaved weeds and the isolation and identification of phytotoxins. In The Science of Allelopathy. Eds. A R Putman and C S Tang. pp. 243–271. John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York.Google Scholar
  152. Spaink H P, Wijfellman C A, Okker R J H and Lugtenberg B J 1989 Localization of functional regions of the Rhyzobium nodD product using hybrid nodD genes. Plant Mol. Biol. 12, 59–73.Google Scholar
  153. Spek L Y 1997 Generation and visualization of root-like structures in a three-dimensional space. Plant Soil 197, 9.Google Scholar
  154. Spruell J A 1984 Allelopathic potential of wheat accessions. In Science and Engineering. pp. 45:1102B. University if Oklahoma, Oklahoma.Google Scholar
  155. Stacey G, Sanjuan J, Luka S, Dockendorff T and Carlson W 1995 Signal exchange in the Bradyrhizobium-soybean symbiosis. Soil Biol. Biochem. 27, 473–483.Google Scholar
  156. Steinsiek J W, Oliver L R and Collins F C 1980 The effect of phytotoxic substances from wheat straw on selected weeds. In Abstracts of 33rd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society.Google Scholar
  157. Steinsiek J W, Oliver L R and Collins F C 1982 Allelopathic potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw on selected weed species. Weed Sci. 30, 495–497.Google Scholar
  158. Streibig J C, Dayan F E, Rimando A M and Duke S O 1999 Joint action of natural and synthetic photosystem II inhibitors. Pest. Sci. 55, 137–146.Google Scholar
  159. Subudhi P K and Nguyen H T 2000 New horizons in biotechnology. In Sorghum: origin, history, technology, and production. Ed. R A Frederiksen. pp. 349–397. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  160. Thaler P and Pages L 1998 Modelling the influence of assimilate availability on root growth and architecture. Plant Soil 201, 307–320.Google Scholar
  161. Treeby M, Marschner H and Roemheld V 1989 Mobilization of iron and other micronutrient cations from a calcareous soil by plantborne microbial and synthetic metal chelator. Plant Soil 114, 217–226.Google Scholar
  162. Uren N C 2000 Types, amounts, and possible functions of compunds released into the rhizosphere by soil-grown plants. In The Rhizosphere: Biochemistry and Organic Substances at the Soil-Plant Interface. Eds. R Pinton, Z Varanini and P Nannipieri. pp. 19–40. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York.Google Scholar
  163. Welch R M 1995 Micronutrient nutrition of plants. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 14, 49–82.Google Scholar
  164. Wen T J and Schnable P S 1994 Analyses of mutants of three genes that influence root hair development in Zea mays (Gramineae) suggest that root hairs are dispensable. Am. J. Bot. 81, 833–842.Google Scholar
  165. Weston L A 1996 Utilization of allelopathy for weed management in agroecosystems. Agron. J. 88, 860–866.Google Scholar
  166. Whipps J M 1990 Carbon economy. In The Rhizosphere. Ed. J M Lynch. 59 pp. J Wiley & Son, Chichester, UK.Google Scholar
  167. Whittaker R H and Feeny P P 1971 Allelochemics: chemical interactions between species. Science 171, 757–770.Google Scholar
  168. Willis R J 2000 Juglans spp., juglone and allelopathy. Allelopathy J. 7, 1–55.Google Scholar
  169. Wu H, Haig T, Pratley J, Lemerle D and An M 2000a Allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): variation of phenolic acids in root tissues. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 5321–5325.Google Scholar
  170. Wu H, Haig T, Pratley J, Lemerle D and An M 2001 Allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): variation of phenolic acids in shoot tissues. J. Chem. Ecol. 27, 125–135.Google Scholar
  171. Wu H, Haig T, Pratley J, Lemerle D and An M 2000b Distribution and exudation of allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J. Chem. Ecol. 26, 2141–2154.Google Scholar
  172. Wu H, Haig T, Pratley J, Lemerle D and An M 1999 Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one by GC/MS/MS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J. Chromatogr. 864, 315–321.Google Scholar
  173. Wu H, Pratley J, Lemerle D and Haig T 2000c Laboratory screening for allelopathic potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) accessions against annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum). Aust. J. Agric. Res. 51, 259–266.Google Scholar
  174. Wu H, Pratley J, Lemerle D and Haig T 2000d Evaluation of seedling allelopathy in 453 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions by Equal-Compartment-Agar-Method. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 51, 937–944.Google Scholar
  175. Wu H, Pratley J, Lemerle D, Haig T and Verbeek B 1998 Differential allelopathic potential among wheat accessions to annual ryegrass. In 9th Australian Agronomy Conference, Wagga Wagga, 1998. pp. 567–571.Google Scholar
  176. Wubben M J E, Su H, Rodermel S R and Baum T J 2001 Susceptibility to the sugar beet cyst nematode is modulated by ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol. Plant-Microbe Int. 14, 1206–1212.Google Scholar
  177. Yang X 2003 Development of new technology for isolation of key bioherbicidal genes in sorghum root hairs. Cornell University.Google Scholar
  178. Yoshitomi K J and Shann R J 2001 Corn (Zea mays L.) root exudates and their impact on 14C-pyrene mineralization. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 1769–1776.Google Scholar
  179. Young I M 1998 Biophysical interactions at the root-soil interface: a review. J. Agric. Sci. 130.Google Scholar
  180. Zang F, Romheld V and Marschner H 1991 Release of zinc mobilizing root exudates in different species as affected by zinc nutritional status. J. Plant Nutr. 14, 675–686.Google Scholar
  181. Zheng S J, Ma J F and Matsumoto H 1998 High aluminium resistance in buckwheat. I. Aluminium-induced specific secretion of oxalic acid from root tips. Plant Physiol. 117, 745–751.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cecile Bertin
    • 1
  • Xiaohan Yang
    • 1
  • Leslie A. Weston
    • 1
  1. 1.Cornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations