, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 445–467 | Cite as

The mutual information of university-industry-government relations: An indicator of the Triple Helix dynamics

  • Loet LeydesdorffEmail author


University-industry-government relations provide a networked infrastructure for knowledge-based innovation systems. This infrastructure organizes the dynamic fluxes locally and the knowledge base remains emergent given these conditions. Whereas the relations between the institutions can be measured as variables, the interacting fluxes generate a probabilistic entropy. The mutual information among the three institutional dimensions provides us with an indicator of this entropy. When this indicator is negative, self-organization can be expected. The self-organizing dynamic may temporarily be stabilized in the overlay of communications among the carrying agencies. The various dynamics of Triple Helix relations at the global and national levels, in different databases, and in different regions of the world, are distinguished by applying this indicator to scientometric and webometric data.


Entropy Knowledge Base National Level Mutual Information Innovation System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publisher/Akadémiai Kiadó 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR)AmsterdamThe Netherlands

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