, Volume 501, Issue 1–3, pp 179–198 | Cite as

Freshwater bryozoans (Bryozoa) of Norway IV: Distribution and ecology of four species of Plumatella with notes on Hyalinella punctata

  • Karen Anna Økland
  • Jan Økland
  • Gaby Geimer
  • Jos. A. Massard


Bryozoans were investigated during field studies of 601 lakes and other surface water bodies throughout Norway from 1960 to 1978. The frequency of occurrence of Plumatella repens was evaluated in relation to 12 environmental variables. Statistically significant deviations from the frequencies expected on the basis of random distribution were described using the categories preference, avoidance and absence. P. repens is one of the most common bryozoan species in Norway. It is represented at 227 localities in our material and by 29 additional records. The species occurred frequently all over the country, north to 71° 09′ N (the northernmost record on the European mainland). Maximum elevation above sea level was 1052 m (maximum for Northern Europe). P. repens preferred lakes, avoided rivers, and was absent from the smallest water bodies. The species preferred (1) low elevation (2–200 m above sea level), (2) medium water temperature, (3) rich aquatic vegetation (eutrophic conditions), (4) small wave action, (5) high content of calcium and magnesium, (6) pH 6.4–9.6, and (7) rather high water colour. Otherwise P. repens avoided (1) habitats above 500 m but occurred up to 1052 m, (2) the lowest water temperature intervals, (3) sites with poor aquatic vegetation and stony shores, (4) medium wave action, (5) sites with a low calcium and magnesium content, (6) lakes of low water colour, and (7) lakes with pH below 6.6: it was absent from lakes with pH below 5.2. For many environmental variables, the species had a wider tolerance range than reported from elsewhere. P. fungosa, P. casmiana, and P. emarginata are all rare in Norway. The total numbers of known localities, with our records in (), are 18 (11), 7 (7), and 7 (5), respectively. These sites are all from lowland areas up to 133 m above sea level. Environmental variables in the habitats are described. P. fungosa was represented by a single floatoblast in each of the four northernmost lakes where it was recorded. One of these lakes was in North Norway some 1000 km away from the nearest known sites with living colonies. The presence of large colonies of P. fungosa in some parts of southern Norway and only `single floatoblast lakes' further north is discussed in relation to the equilibrium theory of island biogeography: birds facilitate immigration by carrying floatoblasts and environmental conditions prevent their germination and the development of living colonies. All records of P. casmiana and P. emarginata were from South Norway. Results for P. fruticosa have been published previously. Notes are given on an old and now missing sample from ca. 1900, identified by Lacourt (1968) as Hyalinella punctata – the only record of this species from Norway.

biogeography Bryozoa ecology freshwater Hyalinella punctata Norway Plumatella casmiana Plumatella emarginata Plumatella fungosa Plumatella repens 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrikossoff, G., 1932. Die Bryozoen. II. Teil. Die Süsswasserbryozoen des arktischen Gebietes. Fauna arct. 6: 384- 388.Google Scholar
  2. Arndt, W., 1928. Die Süsswasserschwamm Heteromeyenia ryderi Potts auf dem Fär Öern. Zool. Anz. 77: 156- 166.Google Scholar
  3. Becker, G., 1938. Süsswasser-Bryozoen in Mecklenburg. Arch. Ver. Fr. Naturges. Mecklenburg 13: 87- 97.Google Scholar
  4. Bennike, O., J. Böcher, P. Konradi, A. Kuijpers, & B. Larsen, 1998. Macrofossil studies of lacustrine sediments from Skálafjø rdur, the Faroe Islands: preliminary results. Fró βskaparrit 46: 267- 275.Google Scholar
  5. Borg, F., 1941. Ñber die Süsswasserbryozoen Schwedens. Zool. Bidr. Upps. 20: 479- 496.Google Scholar
  6. Bø rset, R., 1969. To nye norske funn av mosdyret Plumatella fungosa (Pall.). Fauna, Oslo 22: 221- 222.Google Scholar
  7. Bushnell, J. H., 1973. The freshwater Ectoprocta: A zoogeographical discussion. In Larwood, G. P. (ed.), Living and Fossil Bryozoa. Recent Advances in Research. Academic Press, London, New York: 503- 521.Google Scholar
  8. Bushnell, J. H., 1974. Bryozoans (Ectoprocta). In Hart, C. W. & S. L. H. Fuller (eds), Pollution Ecology of Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press, New York, San Francisco, London: 157- 194.Google Scholar
  9. Bushnell, J. H. & K. S. Rao, 1974. Dormant or quiescent stages and structures among the Ectoprocta. Physical and chemical factors affecting viability and germination of statoblasts. Trans. am. Micros. Soc. 93: 524- 543.Google Scholar
  10. Canning, E. U., A. Curry; S.W. Feist, M. Longshaw & B. Okamura, 1999. Tetracapsula bryosalmonae n.sp. for PKX organisms, the cause of PKD in salmonid fish. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol. 19 (5): 203- 206.Google Scholar
  11. Cox, C. B. & P. D. Moore, 1993. Biogeography. An ecological and evolutionary approach. 5th edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  12. Everitt, B., 1975. Fresh-water Ectoprocta: Distribution and ecology of five species in southeastern Louisiana. Trans. am.Micros. Soc. 94: 130- 134.Google Scholar
  13. Fjeldså , J. & G. G. Raddum, 1973. + rjú n+ vatnad+ r á Íslandi. (English summary: three limnic invertebrate species found in Myvatn in 1969). Náttú rrufræ δingurin n 43: 103- 113.Google Scholar
  14. Geimer, G. & J. A. Massard, 1986. Les bryozoaires du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg et des régions limitrophes. Trav. sci. Mus. hist. nat. Luxembourg No 7: 1- 188.Google Scholar
  15. Hosmer, D. W. & S. Lemeshow, 1989. Applied logistic regression. John Wiley and Sons, New York: XIII: 307 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Job, P., 1976. Intervention des populations de Plumatella fungosa (Pallas) (Bryozoaire Phylactolè me) dans l'autoépuration des eaux d'un étang et d'un ruisseau. Hydrobiologia 48: 257- 261.Google Scholar
  17. Jó nasson, P. M., 1961. Masseforekomst af mosdyr i nogle danske sø er. Ferskvandsfiskeribladet 59: 48- 54.Google Scholar
  18. Jó nasson, P. M., 1963. The growth of Plumatella repens and P. fungosa (Bryozoa Ectoprocta). Oikos 14 (II): 121- 137.Google Scholar
  19. Kaminski, M., 1984. Food composition of three bryozoan species (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata) in a mesotrophic lake. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 31: 45- 53.Google Scholar
  20. Kraepelin, K., 1887. Die deutschen Süsswasser-Bryozoen. Eine Monographie. I. Anatomisch-systematischer Teil. Abh. Naturw., Hamburg 10(9): 1- 168.Google Scholar
  21. Lacourt, A. W., 1968. A monograph of the freshwater Bryozoa - Phylactolaemata. Zool. Verh., Leiden 93: 1- 159.Google Scholar
  22. Levander, K. M., 1908. Zur Kenntnis der Verbreitung der Süsswasser-Bryozoen in Finland. Medd. Soc. Fauna Flora Fennica 32: 97- 106.Google Scholar
  23. Lundblad, O., 1917. Om nå gra i Sverige till sin utbredning mindre kända lakustrine evertebrater. Fauna Flora Upps. 12: 129- 136.Google Scholar
  24. MacArthur, R. H. & E. O. Wilson, 1963. An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution 17: 373- 387.Google Scholar
  25. Marcus, E., 1940. Mosdyr (Bryozoa eller Polyzoa). Danmarks Fauna 46: 1- 401.Google Scholar
  26. Massard, J. A. & G. Geimer, 1991a. Note sur les Bryozoaires d'eau douce trouvés en diverses stations luxembourgeoises et belges, avec des considérations sur la bryozoofaune de la Sû re et des remarques concernant les statoblastes de Hyalinella punctata (Hancock, 1850). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 92: 131- 148.Google Scholar
  27. Massard, J. A. & G. Geimer, 1991b. Additional note on the freshwater Bryozoa of Tenerife (Phylactolaemata). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 92: 149- 157.Google Scholar
  28. Massard, J. A. & G. Geimer, 1995. On the distribution of Plumatella casmiana in the European and Mediterranean parts of the Palaearctic region (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 96: 157- 165.Google Scholar
  29. Massard, J. A., G. Geimer, K. A. Økland & J. Økland, 2002. Note on the occurrence of the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella casmiana Oka, 1907 (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata) in Norway. Archs Inst. g.-d. Luxemb. Sect. Sci. nat. phys. math., NS 44: 127- 143.Google Scholar
  30. Mundy, S. P., 1980. A key to the British and European freshwater bryozoans. Freshwat. biol. Ass., Scient. Publ. 41: 1- 32.Google Scholar
  31. Oka, A., 1907. Zur Kenntnis der Süsswasser-Bryozoenfauna von Japan. Annot. Zool. Jap. 6: 117- 123.Google Scholar
  32. Okamura, B., 1996. Occurrence, prevalence, and effects of the myxozoan Tetracapsula bryozoides parasitic in the freshwater bryozoan Cristatella mucedo (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata). Folia Parasitologica 43: 262- 266.Google Scholar
  33. Økland, J., 1961. Om Østensjø vann i Oslo og faunaen der. (Summary in English). Fauna, Oslo 14: 121- 143.Google Scholar
  34. Økland, J., 1964. The eutrophic lake Borrevann (Norway) - an ecological study on shore and bottom fauna with special reference to gastropods, including a hydrographic survey. Folia Limnol. scand. 13: 1- 337.Google Scholar
  35. Økland, J., 1969a. Om mosdyr i ferskvann og en ny art for Norge. (Summary in English). Fauna, Oslo 22: 215- 221.Google Scholar
  36. Økland, J., 1969b. Distribution and ecology of the fresh-water snails (Gastropoda) of Norway. Malacologia 9: 143- 151.Google Scholar
  37. Økland, J., 1990. Lakes and snails. Environment and Gastropoda in 1500 Norwegian lakes, ponds and rivers. Universal Book Services/Dr. W. Backhuys, Oegstgeest, The Netherlands: 516 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Økland, J. & K. A. Økland, 1986. The effects of acid deposition on benthic animals in lakes and streams. Experientia 42: 471- 486.Google Scholar
  39. Økland, K. A. & J. Økland, 1989. The amphiatlantic freshwater sponge Anheteromeyenia ryderi (Porifera: Spongillidae): taxonomic-geographic implications of records from Norway. Hydrobiologia 171: 177- 188.Google Scholar
  40. Økland, K. A. & J. Økland, 1991. En ferskvannssvamp (Anheteromeyenia ryderi) med amfiatlantisk utbredelse funnet i Norge. (Summary in English). Fauna, Oslo 44: 220- 226.Google Scholar
  41. Økland, K. A. & J. Økland, 1996a. Freshwater sponges (Porifera: Spongillidae) of Norway: distribution and ecology. Hydrobiologia 330: 1- 30.Google Scholar
  42. Økland, K. A. & J. Økland, 1996b. Bryozoa - Mosdyr. In Aagaard, K. & D. Dolmen (eds), Limnofauna Norvegica. Katalog over Norsk Ferskvannsfauna. Tapir Forlag, Trondheim: 87- 88.Google Scholar
  43. Økland, K. A. & J. Økland, 2000. Freshwater bryozoans (Bryozoa) of Norway: Distribution and ecology of Cristatella mucedo and Paludicella articulata. Hydrobiologia 421: 1- 24.Google Scholar
  44. Økland, K. A. & J. Økland, 2001. Freshwater bryozoans (Bryozoa) of Norway II: Distribution and ecology of two species of Fredericella. Hydrobiologia 459: 103- 123.Google Scholar
  45. Økland, K. A. & J. Økland, 2002. Freshwater bryozoans (Bryozoa) of Norway III: Distribution and ecology of Plumatella fruticosa. Hydrobiologia 479: 11- 22.Google Scholar
  46. Raddum, G. G., 1970. Mosdyret, Plumatella fungosa (Pallas), ø kologi og taksonomi. (Summary in English). Fauna, Oslo 23: 122- 131.Google Scholar
  47. Raddum, G. G., 1971. Litt om ferskvannsmosdyr i Vest-Norge. (Summary in English). Fauna, Oslo 24: 84- 95.Google Scholar
  48. Raddum, G. G., 1973. Mosdyr-faunaen (Bryozoa) i diverse ferskvann på Vestlandet, biologi og taksonomi. Thesis, Univ. Bergen, Norway. 153 pp.Google Scholar
  49. Raddum, G. G., 1981. Livsstrategi hos mosdyret Plumatella repens. (Summary in English). Fauna, Oslo 34: 162- 166.Google Scholar
  50. Ricciardi, A. & H. M. Reiswig, 1994. Taxonomy, distribution, and ecology of the freshwater bryozoans (Ectoprocta) of eastern Canada. Can. J. Zool. 72: 339- 359.Google Scholar
  51. Richard, J., 1897. Entomostracés recueillis par M. Ch. Rabot à Jan Mayen et au Spitzberg. Bull. Soc. Zool. France 22: 193- 198.Google Scholar
  52. Rieradevall, M. & J. M. Busquets, 1990. Bryozoans of Banyoles lake (NE Spain). Limnetica 6: 137- 146.Google Scholar
  53. Røen, U., 1977. On freshwater Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) in Greenland with a record of Plumatella repens (L.) new to Greenland. Astarte 10: 73- 76.Google Scholar
  54. Smyth, T., 1994. The distribution of freshwater Bryozoa in Ireland. Bull. Irish biogeogr. Soc. 17: 9- 22.Google Scholar
  55. Steingrímsson, S. A. 1985. Mosad+ r i Urridakotsvatni. Náttú rrufræ δingurinn 55: 61- 71.Google Scholar
  56. Sund, T., 1968. Norway. In Sø mme A. (ed.), A Geography of Norden. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden. New edition. J.W. Cappelens Forlag, Oslo: 235- 291.Google Scholar
  57. Tenney, W. R. & W. S. Woolcott, 1966. The occurrence and ecology of freshwater bryozoans in headwaters of the Tennessee, Savannah, and Saluda river systems. Trans. am. Micros. Soc. 85: 241- 245.Google Scholar
  58. Troyer-Mildner, J. & P. Mildner, 1987. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Moostierchen (Tentaculata: Bryozoa) Kärntens. Carinthia II, 177/97: 131- 144.Google Scholar
  59. Troyer-Mildner, J. & P. Mildner, 1992. Zur Kenntnis der Bryozoanfauna Kärntens (Tentaculata: Ectoprocta). Carinthia II, 182./102: 579- 589.Google Scholar
  60. Ulrich, W., 1926. Ñber das Vorkommen der Victoria pavida Kent und einiger anderer Bryozoen im Brackwasser des Rostocker Hafens. Z. Morph. Oekol. d. Tiere 5: 559- 576.Google Scholar
  61. Velikonja, M., 1992. A contribution to the knowledge of the freshwater Bryozoa of Slovenia. Biol. Vestn. 40(2) 1992 (1995): 83- 88.Google Scholar
  62. Wesenberg-Lund, C., 1907. On the occurrence of Fredericella sultana Blumenb. and Paludicella Ehrenbergii van Bened. in Greenland. Medd. Grø nland 34: 63- 75.Google Scholar
  63. Wiebach, F. & J.-L. d'Hondt, 1978. Bryozoa. In Illies, J. (ed.), Limnofauna Europaea. 2nd edn. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, New York; Swets & Zeitlinger B.V., Amsterdam: 492- 493.Google Scholar
  64. Wood, T. S., 1998. Reappraisal of Australian freshwater bryozoans with two new species of Plumatella (Ectoprocta: Phylactolaemata). Invertebrate Taxonomy 12: 257- 272.Google Scholar
  65. Wood, T. S., 2001. Bryozoans. In Thorp, J. H. & A. P. Covich (eds), Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. 2nd edn. Academic Press, London: 505- 525.Google Scholar
  66. Wood, T. S., L. J. Wood, G. Geimer & J. Massard, 1998. Freshwater bryozoans of New Zealand: a preliminary survey. New Zealand J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 32: 639- 648.Google Scholar
  67. Wood, T.S., 2002. Freshwater bryozoans: a zoogeographical reassessment. In Wyse Jackson P. N., C. J. Buttler & M. E. Spencer Jones (eds), Bryozoan studies 2001. Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse: 339- 345.Google Scholar
  68. Wöss, E., 1994. Seasonal fluctuations of bryozoan populations in five water bodies with special emphasis on the life cycle of Plumatella fungosa (Pallas). In Hayward, P. J., J. S. Ryland & P. D. Taylor (eds), Biology and Palaeobiology of Bryozoans: Proc. of the 9th Intern. Bryozoology Conf. Univ. of Wales, Swansea. 1992: 211- 214.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Anna Økland
    • 1
  • Jan Økland
    • 1
  • Gaby Geimer
    • 2
  • Jos. A. Massard
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Musée National d'Histoire NaturelleLuxembourg

Personalised recommendations