Protein crystallization for genomics: throughput versus output

  • Naomi E. Chayen


Structural genomics involves many steps in order to reach from Gene to structure. This article focuses on the crystallization step in this chain of tasks. It is becoming increasingly evident that the current high throughput procedures for crystallising proteins do not always produce the expected output of high quality crystals required for structure determination by x-ray crystallography. This problem is discussed and suggestions for raising the output are presented.

Gels Microbatch Nucleation Protein crystallization Structural Genomics Proteomics 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Luft, J.R., Wolfley, J., Jurisica, I., Glasgow, J., Fortier, S. & DeTitta, G.T. (2001) J. Cryst. Growth 232, 591-595.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Walter, T. S., Brown,, D. J., Pickford, M., Owens, R. J., Stuart, D. I. & Harlos, K. (2003) J. Appl. Cryst. 36, 308-314.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Santarsiero, B. D., Yegian D. T., Lee, C. C., Spraggon, G., Gu, J., Scheibe, D., Uber, D. C., Cornell, E. W., Nordmeyer, R. A., Kolbe, W. F., Jin, J., Jones, A. L,, Jaklevic, J. M., Schultz, P. G. & Stevens, R. C. (2002) J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 278-281.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mueller; U., Nyarsik, L., Horn, M., Rauth, H., Przewieslik, T., Saenger, W., Lehrach, H. & Eickhoff, H. (2001). J. Biotechnol. 85, 7-14.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kuhn, P., Wilson, K., Patch, M. G. & Stevens, R. C. (2002) Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 6, 704-710.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hansen, C. L. Skordalakes, E., Berger, J. M., & Quak, S. R. (2002) PNAS 99, 16531-16536.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abola, E., Kuhn, P., Earnest, T. & Stevens, R.C. (2000) Nature Struct. Biol. 7, 973-977.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stevens, R.C., Yokoyama, S. and Wilson, I.A. (2001) Science 294, 89-92.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rupp, B., Segelke, B. W., Krupka, H. I., Lekin, T. P., Schaefer, J., Semla, A., Toppani, D., Snell, G. & Earnest, T. (2002) Acta Cryst. D 58, 1514-1518.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nishio, K., Kobayashi, M., Sugahara, M., Hamada, K. and miyano, M. (2002) International Conference on Structural Genomics, Berlin, Germany. Abstract page 207.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Elkin, C.D. & Hogle, J.M. (2001) J. Cryst. Growth 232, 563-572.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Asanov, A.N., McDonald, H.M., Oldham, P.B., Jedrzejas, M.J. & Wilson, W.W. (2001) J. Cryst. Growth 232, 603-609.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jurisica, I., Rogers, P., Glasgow, J.I., Collins, R.J., Wolfley, J.R., Luft, J.R. & DeTitta, G.T. (2001). IEEE Intell. Syst. 16, 26-34.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stewart, L, Clark, R. and Behnke, C (2002) Drug Discovery Today 7, 187-196.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chayen, N.E. (2002). Trends Biotechnol. 20, 98.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chayen, N.E., Shaw Stewart, P.D., Maeder, D.L. & Blow, D.M. (1990). J. Appl. Cryst. 23, 297-302.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chayen, N.E., Shaw Stewart, P.D. & Blow, D.M. (1992). J. Cryst. Growth 122, 176-180.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chayen, N.E. (1997). Structure 5, 1269-1274.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    De Lucas, L., Bray, T. Nagy, L. Hammerick, D., Cosenza, L., Chait, A. and Stoops, B. Abstract O-A2.5 The International Conference on the crystallization of biological macromolecules. Jena Germany.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jaruez-Martinez, G., Steinmann, P., Roszak, A. W., Isaacs, N. W. & Cooper, J. M. (2002) Anal. Chem. 74, 3505-3510.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bodenstaff, E. R., Hoedemaeker, F. J., Kuil, M. E., de Vrind, H.P.M. & Abrahams, J. P. (2002) Acta Cryst. D58 1901-1906.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stock, D., Leslie, A.G.W. & Walker, J.E. (1999) Science 286, 1700-1705.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Snijder, H.J., Barends, T.R.M. and Dijkstra, B.W. Chapter 16 in ‘Membrane Proteins’ S. Iwata ed (International University Line, USA) 2003, in press.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chayen, N.E. (1998). Acta Cryst. D54, 8-15.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Todd, P (2002) Acta Cryst. D58, 1760.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tyrasa, S. (2002) Acta Cryst. D58, 1760.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Akira, S. (2002) Acta Cryst. D58, 17603.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Robert, M.-C., Vidal, O., Garcia-Ruiz, J.-M. & Otálora, F. (1999) In Crystallization of Nucleic Acids and Proteins. (Ducruix, A. & Giegé, R., eds.), pp. 149-175, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Garcia-Ruiz, R.M., Gonzalez-Ramirez, L.A., Gavira, J.A. and Otalora, F. (2002) Acta Cryst. D58, 1638-1642.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Moreno, A. Saridakis, E. and Chayen, N.E. (2002) J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 140-142.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chayen, N.E. and Saridakis, E. (2002) Acta Cryst. D 58, 921-927.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yonath, A., Mussig, J. & Wittman, H.G. (1982) J. Cell Biochem. 19, 145-155.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chayen, N.E. (1996) Protein Engineering 9, 927-929.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lorber, B. & Giegé, R. (1996) J. Cryst. Growth 168, 204-215Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Saridakis, E., Shaw Stewart, P.D., Lloyd, L.F. & Blow, D.M. (1994) Acta Cryst. D50, 293-297.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bray, T. L., Kim, L. J,, Askew, R. P., Harrington, M. D., Rosenblum, W. M., Wilson, W. W. & DeLucas, L. J. (1998) J. Appl. Cryst. 31, 515-522.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naomi E. Chayen
    • 1
  1. 1.Biological Structure and Function Section, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of MedicineImperial CollegeLondonUK

Personalised recommendations