Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus

, Volume 3, Issue 5–6, pp 79–88 | Cite as

Atmospheric Budget of Non-Seasalt Chlorine in the Kanto District, Japan

  • Akira TakahashiEmail author
  • Keisuke Fukuda
  • Kiyoshi Tsuji
  • Kunio Yoshikawa


To evaluate the influence of anthropogenic emission of HCl on the air quality in the Kanto district of Japan, the atmospheric budgetof non-seasalt Cl (nssCl) was analyzed. The Kanto district, which consists of the Tokyo metropolis and the six surrounding prefectures, is the most densely populated region in Japan. The emission intensity of HCl is extremely high compared with those in other regions and most western countries. In this study, the annual wet and dry depositions of nssClwere estimated on a 0.25 × 0.25° grid over the Kanto district based on the concentration monitoring resultsand meteorological data. The budget analysis was conducted by comparing the estimated deposition with the emission of HCl. As a result, the annual total (wet + dry) deposition of nssCl was estimated to be 32 kt yr-1, which closely agreed with HCl emission (36 kt yr-1) from waste incineration in this area. The result suggested that the anthropogenic emission of HCl had a significant influence on the air quality and the deposition of acidity in this area.

anthropogenic emission atmospheric budget atmospheric deposition hydrochloric acid non-seasalt chlorine waste incineration 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ADORC: 1999, Data Report of Phase-III of Survey of Acid Precipitation, Japan Environmental Agency, Acid Deposition and Oxidant Research Center, Niigata, Japan.Google Scholar
  2. Erisman, J. W., Van Pul, A. and Wyers, P.: 1994, ‘Parametrization of surface resistance for the quantification of atmospheric deposition of acidifying pollutants and ozone’, Atmosph. Environ. 28, 2595–2607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fujita, S., Takahashi, A. and Nishinomiya, S.: 1994, ‘Acidic precipitation in Japan: Design of the CRIEPI monitoring network for the chemistry of precipitation’, Environ. Sci. 7, 107–120.Google Scholar
  4. Hicks, B. B., Baldocchi, D. D., Meyers, T. P., Hosker Jr., R. P. and Matt, D. R.: 1987, ‘A preliminary multiple resistance routine for deriving dry deposition velocities from measured quantities’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 36, 311–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. JWRC: 1993, Data File of Second and Third National Survey on Natural Environment, Japan Environmental Agency, Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  6. Kaneyasu, N., Yoshikado, H., M izuno, T., Sakamoto, K. and Soufuku, M.: 1999, ‘Chemical forms and sources of extremely high nitrate and chloride in winter aerosol pollution in the Kanto plain of Japan’, Atmosph. Environ. 33, 1745–1756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kaneyasu, N., Yoshikado, H., Kondo, H., Moriya, T., Suzuki, M. and Sirakawa, Y.: 2002, ‘Modeling of suspended particulate matter during early-winter severe pollution episodes (I): Development of an emission source model’, Jpn. Soc. Atmosph. Environ. 37, 167–183.Google Scholar
  8. Lightowlers, P. J. and Cape, J. N.: 1988, ‘Sources and fate of atmospheric HCl in the U.K. and Western Europe’, Atmosph. Environ. 22, 7–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mészáros, E.: 1992, ‘Occurrence of Atmospheric Acidity’, in M. Radojevic and R.M. Harrison (eds), Atmospheric Acidity, Source, Consequences and Abatement, Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 1–37.Google Scholar
  10. Möller, D.: 1990, ‘The Na/Cl ratio in rainwater and seasalt chloride cycle’, Tellus 42B, 254–2621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Narita, Y., Satoh, K., Hayashi, K., Iwase, T., Tanaka, S., Dokiya, Y., Hosoe, M. and Hayashi, K.: 2001, ‘Long term trend of chemical constituents in Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 130, 1649–1654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Sanhueza, E.: 2001, ‘Hydrochloric acid from chlorocarbons: A significant global source of background rain acidity’, Tellus 53B, 122–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N.: 1997, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 444 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Takahashi, A. and Fujita, S.: 1993, ‘Chemistry of Acid Fog in Japan’, in Extended Abstracts of International Workshop on Acidic Deposition in East Asia, Hakone, Japan, 24–26 November 1993, pp. 43–48.Google Scholar
  15. Takahashi, A., Sato, K., Wakamatsu, T. and Fujita, S.: 2001, ‘Atmospheric deposition of acidifying components to a Japanese cedar forest’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 130, 559–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Umeda, T. and Katou, Y.: 2001, ‘Survey of Acid Rain in Yokohama City: Rain Acidity Data from January to December 1999’, Annual Report of Yokohama Environmental Science Research Institute, No. 25, Yokohama, Japan, pp. 34–37.Google Scholar
  17. Van Pul, W. A., Potma, C. J. M., Van Leeuwen, E. P., Draaijers, G. P. J. and Erisman, J. W.: 1995, ‘EDACS: European Deposition Maps of Acidifying Compounds on a Small Scale: Model Description and Preliminary Results’, RIVM Report 722401005, RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  18. Wesely, M. L., Cook, D. R. and Hart, R. L.: 1985, ‘Measurements and parameterization of particulate sulfur dry deposition over grassland’, J. Geophys. Res. 90, 2131–2143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Yokohama Environmental Research Institute: 1983, Report of Survey of Photochemical Air Pollution in the Southern Kanto Area, Yokohama Environmental Research Institute, Yokohama, Japan, pp. 5–127.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Takahashi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Keisuke Fukuda
    • 2
  • Kiyoshi Tsuji
    • 2
  • Kunio Yoshikawa
    • 2
  1. 1.Central Research Institute of Electric Power IndustryIwado Kita, Komae-shi, TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Tokyo Institute of TechnologyNagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, YokohamaJapan

Personalised recommendations