Advertisement

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 253, Issue 1–2, pp 247–254 | Cite as

Antiproliferative role of vitamin D and its analogs – a brief overview

  • Pratik Banerjee
  • Malay Chatterjee
Article

Abstract

The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] – a seco-steroid hormone is a pivotal regulator of cellular proliferation and differentiation those are independent of its classical function of calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization. The existence of the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been found in numerous tissues in different organs, which are the so-called 'non-classical' targets of this seco-steroid hormone. Vitamin D has been documented as a potent antiproliferative agent in different tissues and cells. Epidemiological studies reveal a negative correlation between physiological level of vitamin and cancer risk. Studies using animal models clearly demonstrate protective role of vitamin D in different cancer types by the reduction in tumor progression and by monitoring biochemical parameters. Experiments with cultured human and animal cancer cell lines show similar antiproliferative role of vitamin D manifested by up or down regulations of crucial genes leading to inhibition of cellular growth. Hypercalcemia hinders broad-spectrum therapeutic uses of vitamin D in cancer chemotherapy. Application of vitamin D analogs having similar chemical structures or other compounds having vitamin D like actions but lacking calcemic adverse effects are getting significant attention towards rational therapeutics to treat cancer. The current review focuses on the application of vitamin D and its analogs in different forms of cancer and on the molecular mechanism involved in vitamin D mediated inhibition in cellular proliferation, cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and tumor suppression, which may eventually evolve as a meaningful cancer therapy.

vitamin D cellular proliferation cell cycle apoptosis cancer 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Reichel H, Koeffler HP, Norman AW: The role of the vitamin D endocrine system in health and disease. N Engl J Med 320: 980-991, 1989Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bouillon R, Okamura WH, Norman AW: Structure-function relationships in the vitamin D endocrine system. Endocr Rev 16: 200-257, 1995Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Christakos S, Raval-Pandya M, Wernyj RP, Yang W: Genomic mechanisms involved in the pleiotropic actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Biochem J 316: 361-371, 1996Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cippitelli M, Fionda C, Di Bona D, Di Rosa R, Lupo A, Mario Piccoli M et al.: Negative regulation of CD95 ligand gene expression by vitamin D3 in T lymphocytes. J Immunol 168: 1154-1166, 2002Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lemire JM: Immunomodulatory actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 53: 599-602, 1995Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rigby WF: The immunobiology of vitamin D. Immunol Today 9: 54-58, 1988Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Piemonti L, Monti P, Sironi M, Fraticelli P, Leone BE, Dal Cin E et al: Vitamin D3 affects differentiation, maturation, and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Immunol 164: 4443-4451, 2000Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Penna G, Adorini L: 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits differentiation, maturation, activation, and survival of dendritic cells leading to impaired alloreactive T cell activation. J Immunol 164: 2405-2411, 2000Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Provvedini DM, Tsoukas DC, Deftos LJ, Manolagas SC: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in human leukocytes. Science 221: 1181-1183, 1983Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mangelsdorf DJ, Koeffler HP, Donaldson CA, Pike JW, Haussler MR: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced differentiation in a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL-60): Receptor-mediated maturation to macrophage-like cells. J Cell Biol 76: 1-6, 1985Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Minghetti PP, Norman AW: 1,25 (OH)2-vitamin D3 receptors: Gene regulation and genetic circuitry. FASEB J 2: 3043-3053, 1988Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Niles RM: Use of vitamins A and D in chemoprevention and therapy of cancer: Control of nuclear receptor expression and function. Vitamins, cancer and receptors. Adv Exp Med Biol 375: 1-15, 1995Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Norman AW: Vitamin D. In: R. Dulbecco (ed). Encyclopedia of Human Biology. Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1997, pp 749-762Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    DeLuca HF, Zierold C: Mechanisms and functions of vitamin D. Nutr Rev 56: S4-S10, 1998Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carlberg C: Critical analysis of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 response elements. In: A.W. Norman, R. Bouillon, M. Thomasset (eds). Vitamin D: Chemistry, Biology and Clinical Applications of the Steroid Hormone. University of California, Riverside, 1997, pp 268-275Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weitberg AB, Weizman SA, Clark FP, Stossel TP: Effects of anti-oxidants on oxidant-induced sister chromatid exchange. J Clin Invest 75: 1835-1841, 1985Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gerner JM, Domenech M: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients treated with high-dosage ergo-and cholecalciferol. Clin Pathol 30: 144-150, 1977Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mawer EB, Hann JT, Beny JL, Davies M: Vitamin D metabolism in patients intoxicated with ergocalciferol. Clin Sci 68: 135-141, 1985Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rizzoli R, Storemann C, Ammann P, Banjour JP: Hypercalcemia and hyperosteolysis in vitamin D intoxication: Effects of clodronde therapy. Bone 15: 193-198, 1994Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Finlay IG, Stewart GJ, Ahkter J, Morris DL: A phase one study of the hepatic arterial administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 for liver cancers. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 16: 333-337, 2001Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Garland FC, Garland CF, Young JF: Geographic variation in breast cancer mortality in the United States: A hypothesis involving exposure to solar radiation. Prev Med 19: 614-622, 1990Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Garland CF, Comstock GW, Garland FC, Helsing KJ, Shaw EK, Gorham ED: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and colon cancer: Eight-year prospective study. Lancet 2: 1176-1178, 1989Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schwartz GG, Hulka BS: Is Vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for possible for prostate cancer (hypothesis)? Anticancer Res. 0: 1307-1312, 1990Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Holt PR, Arber N, Halmos B, Forde K, Kissileff H, McGlynn KA et al.: Colonic epithelial cell proliferation decreases with increasing levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11: 113-119, 2002Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Habuchi T, Suzuki T, Sasaki R, Wang L, Sato K, Satoh S et al.: Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in Japanese population. Cancer Res 60: 305-308, 2000Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hutchinson PE, Osborne JE, Lear JT, Smith AG, Bowers PW, Morris PN et al.: Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with altered prognosis in patients with malignant melanoma. Clin Cancer Res 6: 498-504, 2000Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Platz AE, Hankinson SE, Hollis BW, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Speizer FE et al.: Plasma 1,25-dihydroxy-and 5-hydroxyvitamin D and Adenomatous polyps of the distal colorectum. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9: 1059-1065, 2000Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sardar S, Chatterjee M, Ghosh S, Roy K: Role of vitamin D3 on the activity patterns of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in transplantable murine lymphoma. Cancer Invest 14: 328-334, 1996Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Makishima M, Lu TT, Xie W, Whitfield GK, Domoto H, Evans RM et al.: Vitamin D receptor as an intestinal bile acid sensor. Science 296: 1313-1316, 2002Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tsoukas CD, Provedini DM, Manolagas SC: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 a novel immunoregulatory hormone. Science 224: 1438-1448, 1984Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shabahang M, Buras RR, Davoodi F, Schumaker LM, Nauta RJ, Uskokovic MR, Brenner RV, Evans SRT: Growth inhibition of HT-29 human colon cancer cells by analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Cancer Res 54: 4057-4064, 1994Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lointier P, Wargovich MJ, Saez S, Levin B, Wildrick DM, Boman BM: The role of vitamin D3 in the proliferation of a human colon cancer cell line in vitro. Anticancer Res 7: 817-822, 1987Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thomas MG, Tebbutt S, Williamson RCN: Vitamin D and its metabolites inhibit cell proliferation in human rectal mucosa and a colon cancer cell line. Gut 33: 1660-1663, 1992Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pines J: Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases: A biochemical view. Biochem J 308: 697-711, 1995Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jiang H, Lin J, Su ZZ, Collart FR, Huberman E, Fisher PB: Induction of differentiation in human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells activates p21WAF1/CIP1, expression in the absence of p53. Oncogene 9: 3397-3406, 1994Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang QM, Jones JB, Studzinski GP: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 as a mediator of the G1-S phase block induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in HL60 cells. Cancer Res 56: 264-267, 1996Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Munker R, Kobayashi T, Elstner E, Norman AW, Uskokovic M, Zhang W et al.: A new series of vitamin D analogs is highly active for clonal inhibition, differentiation, and induction of WAF1 in myeloid leukemia. Blood 88: 2201-2209, 1996Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Campbell MJ, Elstner E, Holden S, Uskokovic M, Koeffler HP: Inhibition of proliferation of prostate cancer cells by a 19-nor-hexafluoride vitamin D3 analog involves the induction of p21waf1, p27kip1 and Ecadherin. J Mol Endocrinol 19: 15-27, 1997Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hansen CM, Rohde L, Madsen MW, Hansen D, Colston KW, Pirianov G et al.: MCF-7/VDR: A new vitamin D resistant cell line. J Cell Biochem 82: 422-436, 2001Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Inoue T, Kamiyama J, Sakai T: Sp1 and NF-Y synergistically mediate the effect of vitamin D3 in the p27kip1 gene promoter that lacks vitamin D response elements. J Biol Chem 274: 32309-32317, 1999Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pagano M, Tam SW, Theodoras AM, Beer-Romero P, Del Sal G, Chau V et al.: Role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in regulating abundance of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27. Science 269: 682-685, 1995Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liu W, Asa SL, Fantus IG, Walfish PG Ezzat S: Vitamin D arrests thyroid carcinoma cell growth and induces p27 dephosphorylation and accumulation through PTEN/akt-dependent and-independent pathways. Am J Pathol 160: 511-519, 2002Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yamaoka K, Marion SL, Gallegos A, Haussler MR: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances the growth of tumors in athymic mice inoculated with receptor rich osteosarcoma cells. Biochim Biophys Res Commun 139: 1292-1298, 1986Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kohl NE, Conner MW, Gibbs JB, Graham SL: Development of inhibitors of protein farnesylation as potential chemotherapeutic agents. J Cell Biochem 22(suppl): 145-150, 1995Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Clairmont A, Tessmann D, Stock A, Nicolai S, Stahl W, Sies H: Induction of gap junctional intercellular communication by vitamin D in human skin fibroblasts is dependent on the nuclear vitamin D receptor. Carcinogenesis 17: 1389-1391, 1996Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hotz-Wagenblatt A, Shalloway D: Gap junctional communication and neoplastic transformation. Crit Rev Oncog 4: 541-558, 1993Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yu W, Dahl G, Werner R: The connexin 43 gene is responsive to estrogen. Proc R Soc Land B Biol 255: 125-132, 1994Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wang X, Nicholas MP, Studzinski GP: Long-term exposure of HL60 cells to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduces their tumorigenecity: A model for cancer chemoprevention. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 215: 399-404, 1997Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brelvi ZS, Studzinski GP: Inhibition of DNA synthesis by an inducer of differentiation of leukemic cells, 1α,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 precedes down regulation of the c-myc genes. J Cell Physiol 128: 171-179, 1986Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Quack M, Clarin A, Binderup E, Bjorkling F, Hansen CM, Carlberg C: Structural variants of the vitamin D analog EB1089 reduce its ligand sensitivity and promoter selectivity. J Cell Biochem 71: 340-350, 1998Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mathiasen IS, Lademann U, Jäättelä M: Apoptosis induced by vitamin D compounds in breast cancer cells is inhibited by Bcl-2 but does not involve known caspases or p53. Cancer Res 59: 4848-4856, 1999Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Elstner E, Israeli ML, Umiel T, Le J, Grillier I, Said J et al: Combination of potent 20-epi-vitamin D3 analog (KH 1060) with 9-cis-retinoic acid irreversibility inhibits clonal growth, decreases bcl-2 expression, and induces apoptosis in HL-60 leukemic cells. Cancer Res 56: 3570-3576, 1996Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shkenazi A, Dixit VM: Death receptor: Signalling and modulation. Science 281: 1305-1308, 1998Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Saudens DE, Christansen C, Schultz JF, Lawrence WD, Malviya VK, Malone JM et al.: Inhibition of c-myc in breast and ovarian carcinoma cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, retinoic acid and dexamethasone. Anti-Cancer Drugs 4: 201-208, 1993Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Koga M, Eisman JA, Sutherland RL: Regulation of epidermal-growth factor receptor levels by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 48: 2734-2739, 1988Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vandewalle B, Hornez Z, Wattez N, Revillion F, Lefebvre T: Vitamin D3 derivatives and breast-tumor cell growth: Effect on intracellular calcium and apoptosis. Int J Cancer 61: 806-811, 1995Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wood AC, Waters CM, Garner A, Hickman JA: Changes in c-myc expression and the kinetics of dexamethane induced programmed cell death (apoptosis) in human lymphoid leukemia cells. Br J Cancer 69: 663-669, 1994Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brady M, Binderum J, Colston KW: EB 1089, a synthetic analog of vitamin D, induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Br J Pharmacol 125: 953-962, 1998Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Swami S, Krishnan AV, Feldman D: 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 down-regulates estrogen receptor abundance and suppresses estrogen actions in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 6: 3371-3379, 2000Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jensen SS, Madsen MW, Lukas J, Binderup L, Bartek J: Inhibitory effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the G1-S phase-controlling machinery. Mol Endocrinol 15: 1370-1380, 2001Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Koli K, Keski-Oja J: 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances the expression of transforming growth factor β1 and its latent form binding protein in cultured breast carcinoma cells. Cancer Res 55: 1440-1446, 1995Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Verlinden L, Verstuyf A, Van Camp M, Marcelis S, Sabbe K, Zhao XY et al.: Two novel 14-Epi-analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res 60: 2673-2679, 2000Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Simboli-Campbel M, Narvaez CJ, VanWeelden K, Tenniswood M, Welsch JE: Comparative effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and EB1089 on cell cycle kinetics and apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat 42: 31-41, 1997Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rozen F, Pollak M: Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor I receptor signaling by the vitamin D analog EB1089 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: A role for insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Int J Oncol 15: 589-594, 1999Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lazzaro G, Agadir A, Qing W, Poria M, Mehta RR, Moriarty RM et al.: Induction of differentiation by alpha-hydroxyvitamin D5 in T47D human breast cancer cells and its interaction with vitamin D receptors. Eur J Cancer 36: 780-786, 2000Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chen A, Davis BH, Bissonnette M, Scaglione-Sewell B, Brasitus TA: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates activator protein-1-dependent caco-2 cell differentiation. J Biol Chem 274: 35505-35513, 1999Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kane KF, Langman MJS, Williams GR: Antiproliferative responses of two human colon cancer cell lines to vitamin D3 are differentially modified by 9-cis retinoic acid. Cancer Res 56: 623-632, 1996Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Caligo MA, Cipollini G, Petrini M, Valentini P, Bevilacqua G: Down regulation of NM23.H1, NM23.H2 and c-myc genes during differentiation induced by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. Leuk Res 20: 161-167, 1996Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Peleg S, Qiu H, Reddy S, Harris D, Van Q, Estey EH et al.: 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 and its analogs inhibit acute myelogenous leukemia progenitor proliferation by suppressing interleukin-1β production. J Clin Invest 100: 1716-1724, 1997Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kole KL, Gyetko MR, Simpson RU, Sitrin RG: Cacitriol-mediated modulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2. Biochem Pharmacol 41: 585-591, 1991Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Seol JG, Kim ES, Park WH, Jung CW, Kim BK, Lee YY: Telomerase activity in acute myelogenous leukaemia: Clinical and biological implications. Br J Haematol 100: 156-165, 1998Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Song LN: Demonstration of vitamin D receptor expression in a human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line: Regulation of vitamin D receptor mRNA expression and responsiveness by forskolin. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 57: 265-274, 1996Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kaneko A, Suzuki S, Hara M, Mori J, Kumagai M, Yajima H et al.: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses the expression of the VCAM-1 receptor, VLA-4 in human leukemic HL-60 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 255: 371-376, 1999Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Park WH, Seol JG, Kim ES, Binderup L, Koeffler HP, Kim BK et al.: The induction of apoptosis by a combined 1,25(OH)2D3 analog, EB1089 and TGF-β1 in NCI-H929 multiple myeloma cells. Int J Oncol 20: 533-542, 2002Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Muto A, Kizaki M, Yamato K, Kawai Y, Kamata-Matsushita M, Ueno H et al.: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces differentiation of a retinoic acid-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line (UF-1) associated with expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1. Blood 93: 2225-2233, 1999Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wang QM, Luo X, Kheir A, Coffman FD, Studzinski GP: Retinoblastoma protein-overexpressing HL60 cells resistant to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 display increased CDK2 and CDK6 activity and shortened G1 phase. Oncogene 16: 2729-2737, 1999Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zhao XY, Peehl DM, Navone NM, Feldman D: 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth by androgen-dependent and androgen-independent mechanisms. Endocrinology 141: 2548-2556, 2000Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rashid SF, Moore JS, Walker E, Driver PM, Engel J, Edwards CE et al.: Synergistic growth inhibition of prostate cancer cells by 1α,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its 19-nor-hexafluoride analogs in combination with either sodium butyrate or trichostatin A. Oncogene 20: 1860-1872, 2001Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Huynh H, Pollak M, Zhang JC: Regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II and IGF binding protein 3 autocrine loop in human PC-3 prostate cancer cells by vitamin D metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analog EB1089. Int J Oncol 13: 137-143, 1998Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hedlund TE, Moffatt KA, Miller GJ: Vitamin D receptor expression is required for growth modulation by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the human prostatic carcinoma cell line ALVA-31. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 58: 277-288, 1996Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Zhuang SH, Burnstein KL: Antiproliferative effect of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP involves reduction of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity and persistent G1 accumulation. Endocrinology 139: 1197-1207, 1998Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Saha BK, Bishayee A, Kanjilal NB, Chatterjee M: 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits hepatic chromosomal aberrations, DNA strand breaks and specific DNA adducts during rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci 58: 1141-1149, 2001Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Saha BK, Sarkar A, Basak R, Chatterjee M: 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses the effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes during chemical rat liver carcinogenesis. Cell Biol Int 25: 227-237, 2001Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Basak R, Bhattacharya R, Chatterjee M: 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits rat liver ultrastructural changes in diethylnitrosamine-initiated and phenobarbital promoted rat hepatocarcinogenesis. J Cell Biochem 81: 357-367, 2001Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Basak R, Chatterjee M: Combined supplementation of vanadium and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibit placental glutathione S-transferase positive foci in rat liver carcinogenesis. Life Sci 68: 217-231, 2000Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Basak R, Saha BK, Chatterjee M: Inhibition of diethylnitrosamine-induced rat liver chromosomal aberrations and DNA-strand breaks by synergistic supplementation of vanadium and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Biochim Biophys Acta 1502: 273-282, 2000Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Basak R, Basu M, Chatterjee M: Combined supplementation of vanadium and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibit diethylnitrosamine-induced rat liver carcinogenesis. Chem Biol Interact 128: 1-18, 2000Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hansen CM, Binderup L, Hamberg KJ, Carlberg C: Vitamin D and cancer: Effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs on growth control and tumorigenesis. Front Biosci 6: D820-D848, 2001Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chatterjee M: Vitamin D and genomic stability. Mutat Res 475: 69-87, 2001Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    van den Bemd GJ, Chang GTG: Vitamin D and vitamin D analogs in cancer treatment. Curr Drug Targets 3: 85-94, 2002Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hisatake J, Kubota T, Hisatake Y, Uskokovic M, Tomoyasu S, Koeffler HP: 5,6-trans-16-ene-vitamin D3: A new class of potent inhibitors of proliferation of prostate, breast, and myeloid leukemic cells. Cancer Res 59: 4023-4029, 1999Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pratik Banerjee
    • 1
  • Malay Chatterjee
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Biochemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical TechnologyJadavpur UniversityCalcuttaIndia

Personalised recommendations