Searching for the exercise factor: is IL-6 a candidate?

  • B.K. Pedersen
  • A. Steensberg
  • C. Fischer
  • C. Keller
  • P. Keller
  • P. Plomgaard
  • M. Febbraio
  • B. Saltin


For years the search for the stimulus that initiates and maintains the change of excitability or sensibility of the regulating centers in exercise has been progressing. For lack of more precise knowledge, it has been called the ‘work stimulus’, ‘the work factor’ or ‘the exercise factor’. In other terms, one big challenge for muscle and exercise physiologists has been to determine how muscles signal to central and peripheral organs. Here we discuss the possibility that interleukin-6 (IL-6) could mediate some of the health beneficial effects of exercise. In resting muscle, the IL-6 gene is silent, but it is rapidly activated by contractions. The transcription rate is very fast and the fold changes of IL-6 mRNA is marked. IL-6 is released from working muscles into the circulation in high amounts. The IL-6 production is modulated by the glycogen content in muscles, and IL-6 thus works as an energy sensor. IL-6 exerts its effect on adipose tissue, inducing lipolysis and gene transcription in abdominal subcutaneous fat and increases whole body lipid oxidation. Furthermore, IL-6 inhibits low-grade TNF-α-production and may thereby inhibit TNF-α-induced insulin resistance and atherosclerosis development. We propose that IL-6 and other cytokines, which are produced and released by skeletal muscles, exerting their effects in other organs of the body, should be named ‘myokines’.


Eccentric Exercise Human Skeletal Muscle Muscle Glycogen Content Exercise Factor Body Lipid Oxidation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Akira S, Taga T and Kishimoto T (1993) Interleukin-6 in biology and medicine. Adv Immunol 54: 1–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Blair SN and Brodney S (1999) Effects of physical inactivity and obesity on morbidity and mortality: current evidence and research issues. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31: S646–S662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boule NG, Haddad E, Kenny GP, Wells GA and Sigal RJ (2001) Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. JAMA 286: 1218–1227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bruunsgaard H, Galbo H, Halkjaer-Kristensen J, Johansen TL, MacLean DA and Pedersen BK (1997) Exercise-induced increase in interleukin-6 is related to muscle damage. J Physiol Lond 499: 833–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Castell LM, Poortmans JR, Leclercq R, Brasseur M, Duchateau J and Newsholme EA (1997) Some aspects of the acute phase response after a maraton race, and the effects of glutamine supplementation. Eur J Appl Physiol 75: 47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Croisier JL, Camus G, Venneman I, Deby-Dupont G, Juchmes-Ferir A, Lamy M, Crielaard JM, Deby C and Duchateau J (1999) Effects of training on exercise-induced muscle damage and interleukin 6 production. Muscle Nerve 22: 208–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dela F, Handberg A, Mikines KJ, Vinten J and Galbo H (1993) GLUT 4 and insulin receptor binding and kinase activity in trained human muscle. J Physiol 469: 615–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Drenth JP, van Uum SH, van Deuren M, Pesman GJ, van der ven Jongekrug J and van der Meer JW (1995) Endurance run increases circulating IL-6 and IL-1ra but downregulates ex vivo TNF-alpha and IL-1beta production. J Appl Physiol 79: 1497–1503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ebeling P, Bourey R, Koranyi L, Tuominen JA, Groop LC, Henriksson J, Mueckler M, Sovijarvi A and Koivisto VA (1993) Mechanism of enhanced insulin sensitivity in athletes. Increased blood flow, muscle glucose transport protein (GLUT-4) concentration, and glycogen synthase activity. J Clin Invest 92: 1623–1631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Eriksson KF and Lindgarde F (1998) No excess 12-year mortality in men with impaired glucose tolerance who participated in the Malmo Preventive Trial with diet and exercise. Diabetologia 41: 1010–1016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Febbraio MA and Pedersen BK (2002) Muscle-derived interleukin-6: mechanisms for activation and possible biological roles. FASEB J 16: 1335–1347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Febbraio MA, Steensberg A, Starkie RL, McConell GK and Kingwell BA (in press) Contracting skeletal muscle releases IL–6 but not TNF-alpha in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism.Google Scholar
  13. Fiers W (1991) Tumor necrosis factor. Characterization at the molecular, cellular and in vivo level. FEBS Lett 285: 199–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gadient RA and Patterson PH (1999) Leukemia inhibitory factor, Interleukin 6, and other cytokines using the GP130 transducing receptor: roles in inflammation and injury. Stem cells 17: 127–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gleeson M and Bishop NC (2000) Special feature for the Olympics: effects of exercise on the immune system: modification of immune responses to exercise by carbohydrate glutamine and anti-oxidant supplements. Immunol Cell Biol 78: 554–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Helge JW, Stallknecht B, Pedersen BK, Galbo H, Kiens B and Richter EA (2003) The effect of graded exercise on IL-6 release and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. J Physiol 546: 299–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hellsten Y, Frandsen U, Orthenblad N, Sjodin N and Richter EA (1997) Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise: a role of inflammation. J Physiol (London) 498: 239–248.Google Scholar
  18. Hotamisligil GS (2000) Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance and the role of the adipocyte. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24(Suppl 4): S23–S27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Jolliffe JA, Rees K, Taylor RS, Thompson D, Oldridge N and Ebrahim S (2000) Exercise-based rehabilitation for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4: CD001800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Jonsdottir I, Schjerling P, Ostrowski K, Asp S, Richter EA and Pedersen BK (2000) Muscle contractions induces interleukin-6 mRNA production in rat skeletal muscles. J Physiol (London) 528: 157–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Keller C, Steensberg A, Pilegaard H, Osada T, Saltin B, Pedersen BK and Neufer PD (2001) Transcriptional activation of the IL-6 gene in human contracting skeletal muscle: influence of muscle glycogen content. FASEB J 15: 2748–2750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kjaer M, Secher NH, Bangsbo J, Perko G, Horn A, Mohr T and Galbo H (1996) Hormonal and metabolic responses to electrically induced cycling during epidural anesthesia in humans. J Appl Physiol 80: 2156–2162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA and Nathan DM (2002) Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346: 393–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kraus WE, Houmard JA, Duscha BD, Knetzger KJ, Wharton MB, McCartney JS, Bales CW, Henes S, Samsa GP, Otvos JD, Kulkarni KR and Slentz CA (2002) Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on plasma lipoproteins. N Engl J Med 347: 1483–1492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lacasse Y, Brosseau L, Milne S, Martin S, Wong E, Guyatt GH and Goldstein RS (2002) Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD003793.Google Scholar
  26. Lacasse Y, Wong E, Guyatt GH, King D, Cook DJ and Goldstein RS (1996) Meta-analysis of respiratory rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lancet 348: 1115–1119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Langberg H, Olesen JL, Gemmer C and Kjaer M (2002) Substantial elevation of interleukin-6 concentration in peritendinous tissue, in contrast to muscle, following prolonged exercise in humans. J Physiol 542: 985–990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leng GC, Fowler B and Ernst E (2000) Exercise for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000990.Google Scholar
  29. Leon AS and Sanchez OA (2001) Response of blood lipids to exercise training alone or combined with dietary intervention. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33: S502–S515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lloyd-Williams F, Mair FS and Leitner M (2002) Exercise training and heart failure: a systematic review of current evidence. Br J Gen Pract 52: 47–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Lyngso D, Simonsen L and Bulow J (2002) Interleukin-6 production in human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue: the effect of exercise. J Physiol 543: 373–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manson JE, Greenland P, LaCroix AZ, Stefanick ML, Mouton CP, Oberman A, Perri MG, Sheps DS, Pettinger MB and Siscovick DS (2002) Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women. N Engl J Med 347: 716–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Matthys P, Mitera T, Heremans H, Van Damme J and Billiau A (1995) Anti-gamma interferon and anti-interleukin-6 antibodies affect staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced weight loss hypoglycemia and cytokine release in D-galactosamine-sensitized and unsensitized mice. Infect Immunol 63: 1158–1164.Google Scholar
  34. Mishima Y, Kuyama A, Tada A, Takahashi K, Ishioka T and Kibata M (2001) Relationship between serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and insulin resistance in obese men with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 52: 119–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mizuhara H, O’Neill E, Seki N, Ogawa T, Kusunoki C, Otsuka K, Satoh S, Niwa M, Senoh H and Fujiwara H (1994) T cell activation-associated hepatic injury: mediation by tumor necrosis factors and protection by interleukin 6. J Exp Med 179: 1529–1537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mohr T, Andersen JL, Biering-Sorensen F, Galbo H, Bangsbo J, Wagner A and Kjaer M (1997) Long-term adaptation to electrically induced cycle training in severe spinal cord injured individuals. Spinal Cord 35: 1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moldoveanu AI, Shephard RJ and Shek PN (2000) Exercise elevates plasma levels but not gene expression of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNFalpha in blood mononuclear cells [In Process Citation]. J Appl Physiol 89: 1499–1504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Nagaraju K, Raben N, Merritt G, Loeffler L, Kirk K and Plotz P (1998) A variety of cytokines and immunologically relevant surface molecules are expressed by normal human skeletal muscle cells under proinflammatory stimuli. Clin Exp Immunol 113(Sep): 407–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nehlsen-Canarella SL, Fagoaga OR and Nieman DC (1997) Carbohydrate and the cytokine response to 2.5 h of running. J Appl Physiol 82: 1662–1667.Google Scholar
  40. Nielsen HB, Secher N and Perdersen BK (1996) Lymphocytes and NK cell activity during repeated bouts of maximal exercise. Am J Physiol 271: R222–R227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Nieman DC, Davis JM, Henson DA, Walberg-Rankin J, Shute M, Dumke CL, Utter AC, Vinci DM, Carson JA, Brown A, Lee WJ, McAnulty SR and McAnulty LS (in press) Carbohydrate ingestion influences skeletal muscle cytokine mRNA and plasma cytokine levels after a 3-h run. J Appl Physiol.Google Scholar
  42. Nieman DC, Nehlsen-Canarella SL, Fagoaga OR, Henson DA, Utter A, Davis JM, Williams F and Butterworth DE (1998a) Effects of mode and carbohydrate on the granulocyte and monocyte response to intensive prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol 84: 1252–1259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Nieman DC, Nehlsen-Canarella SL, Fagoaga OR, Henson DA, Utter A, Davis JM, Williams F and Butterworth DE (1998b) Influence of mode and carbohydrate on the cytokine response to heavy exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30: 671–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nonogaki K, Fuller GM, Fuentes NL, Moser AH, Staprans I, Grunfeld C and Feingold KR (1995) Interleukin-6 stimulates hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats. Endocrinology 136: 2143–2149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Northoff H, Weinstock C and Berg A (1994) The cytokine response to strenuous exercise. Int J Sports Med 15: S167–S171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nybo L, Nielsen B, Pedersen BK, Moller K and Secher NH (2002) Interleukin-6 release from the human brain during prolonged exercise. J Physiol 542: 991–995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ostrowski K, Hermann C, Bangash A, Schjerling P, Nielsen JN and Pedersen BK (1998a) A trauma-like elevation in plasma cytokines in humans in response to treadmill running. J Physiol (London) 508: 949–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ostrowski K, Rohde T, Asp S, Schjerling P and Pedersen BK (1999) The cytokine balance and strenuous exercise: TNF-alpha, IL-2beta, IL-6, IL-1ra, sTNF-r1, sTNF-r2 and IL-10. J Physiol (London) 515: 287–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ostrowski K, Rohde T, Zacho M, Asp S and Pedersen BK (1998b) Evidence that IL-6 is produced in skeletal muscle during intense long-term muscle activity. J Physiol (London) 508: 949–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ostrowski K, Rohde T, Asp S, Schjerling P and Pedersen BK (2001) Chemokines are elevated in plasma after strenuous exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 84: 244–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ostrowski K, Schjerling P and Pedersen BK (2000) Physical activity and plasma interleukin-6 in humans — effect of intensity of exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 83: 512–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, Hu ZX, Lin J, Xiao JZ, Cao HB, Liu PA, Jiang XG, Jiang YY, Wang JP, Zheng H, Zhang H, Bennett PH and Howard BV (1997) Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 20: 537–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Path G, Bornstein SR, Gurniak M, Chrousos GP, Scherbaum WA and Hauner H (2001) Human breast adipocytes express interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its receptor system: increased IL-6 production by betaadrenergic activation and effects of IL-6 on adipocyte function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86: 2281–2288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pedersen BK and Hoffman-Goetz L (2000) Exercise and the immune system: regulation integration and adaption. Physiol Rev 80: 1055–1081.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Pedersen BK, Ostrowski K, Rohde T and Bruunsgaard H (1998) The cytokine response to strenuous exercise. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 76: 505–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pedersen BK, Steensberg A, Keller P, Keller C, Fischer C, Hiscock N, van Hall G, Plomgaard P and Febbraio MA (in press) Muscle derived interleukin-6 — lipolytic, antiinflammatory and immune regulatory effects. Eur J Physiol.Google Scholar
  57. Pedersen BK, Steensberg A and Schjerling P (2001) Muscle-derived interleukin-6: possible biological effects. J Physiol 536: 329–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pickup JC, Chusney GD, Thomas SM and Burt D (2000) Plasma interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha and blood cytokine production in type 2 diabetes. Life Sci 67: 291–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pilegaard H, Ordway GA, Saltin B and Neufer PD (2000) Transcriptional regulation of gene expression in human skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279: E806–E814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Rhind SG, Castellani JW, Brenner IKM, Shepard RJ, Young AJ and Shek PN (2002) Intracellular monocyte and serum cytokine expression is modulated by exhausting exercise and cold exposure. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 282.Google Scholar
  61. Ridker PM, Rifai N, Stampfer MJ and Hennekens CH (2000) Plasma concentration of interleukin-6 and the risk of future mycocardial infarction among apparently healthy men. Circulation 101: 1767–1772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Rohde T, MacLean DA, Richter EA, Kiens B and Pedersen BK (1997) Prolonged submaximal eccentric exercise is associated with increased levels of plasma IL-6. Am J Physiol 273: E85–E91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Starkie RL, Angus DJ, Rolland J, Hargreaves M and Febbraio M (2000) Effect of prolonged submaximal exercise and carbohydrate ingestion on monocyte intracellular cytokine production in humans. J Physiol (London) 528: 647–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Starkie RL, Arkinstall MJ, Koukoulas I, Hawley JA and Febbraio MA (2001a) Carbohydrate ingestion attenuates the increase in plasma interleukin-6, but not skeletal muscle interleukin-6 mRNA, during exercise in humans. J Physiol 533: 585–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Starkie RL, Ostrowski SR, Jauffred S, Febbraio MA and Pedersen BK (in press) Exercise and IL–6 infusion inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-a production in humans. FASEB J. Google Scholar
  66. Starkie RL, Rolland J, Angus DJ, Anderson MJ and Febbraio MA (2001b) Circulating monocytes are not the source of elevations in plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels after prolonged running. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 280: C769–C774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Steensberg A, Febbraio MA, Osada T, Schjerling P, van Hall G, Saltin B and Pedersen BK (2001) Interleukin-6 production in contracting human skeletal muscle is influenced by pre-exercise muscle glycogen content. J Physiol 537: 633–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Steensberg A, Fischer CP, Sacchetti M, Keller C, Osada T, Schjerling P, van Hall G, Febbraio MA and Pedersen BK (in press) Acute interleukin-6 administration does not impair muscle glucose uptake or whole body glucose disposal in healthy humans. J Physiol.Google Scholar
  69. Steensberg A, Keller C, Starkie RL, Osada T, Febbraio MA and Pedersen BK (2002) IL-6 and TNF-alpha expression in and release from contracting human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 283: E1272–E1278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Steensberg A, Toft ADSP, Halkjaer-Kristensen J and Pedersen BK (2001b) Plasma interleukin-6 during strenuous exercise — role of adrenaline. Am J Physiol 281: 1001–1004.Google Scholar
  71. Steensberg A, van Hall G, Osada T, Sacchetti M, Saltin B and Pedersen BK (2000) Production of IL-6 in contracting human skeletal muscles can account for the exercise-induced increase in plasma IL-6. J Physiol (London) 529: 237–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Steppich B, Dayyani F, Gruber R, Lorenz R, Mack M and Ziegler-Heitbrock HW (2000) Selective mobilization of CD14(+)-CD16(+) monocytes by exercise. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 279: C578–C586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Stewart KJ (2001) Exercise and hypertension. In: Roitman J (ed.) ACSM’s Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  74. Stewart KJ, Hiatt WR, Regensteiner JG and Hirsch AT (2002) Exercise training for claudication. N Engl J Med 347: 1941–1951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stouthard JM, Romijn JA, van der PT, Endert E, Klein S, Bakker PJ, Veenhof CH and Sauerwein HP (1995) Endocrinologic and metabolic effects of interleukin-6 in humans. Am J Physiol 268: E813–E819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Suzuki K, Yamada M, Kurakake S, Okamura N, Yamaya K, Liu Q, Kudoh S, Kowatari K, Nakaji S and Sugawara K (2000) Circulating cytokines and hormones with immunosuppressive but neutrophil-priming potentials rise after endurance exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 81: 281–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tilg H, Dinarello CA and Mier JW (1997) IL-6 and APPs: anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive mediators. Immunol Today 18: 428–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Toft AD, Jensen LB, Bruunsgaard H, Ibfelt T, Halkjaer-Kristensen J, Febbraio M and Pedersen BK (2002) Cytokine response to eccentric exercise in young and elderly humans. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 283: C289–C295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Toft AD, Ostrowski K, Asp S, Møller K, Iversen S, Hermann C, Søndergaard SR and Pedersen BK (2000) The effects of n-3 PUFA on the cytokine response to strenuous exercise. J Appl Physiol 89: 2401–2405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Louheranta A, Rastas M, Salminen V and Uusitupa M (2001) Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 344: 1343–1350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ullum H, Haahr PM, Diamant M, Palmo J, Halkjaer Kristensen J and Pedersen BK (1994) Bicycle exercise enhances plasma IL-6 but does not change IL-1alpha IL-1beta IL-6 or TNF-alpha premRNA in BMNC. J Appl Physiol 77: 93–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. van der Poll T, Coyle SM, Barbosa K, Braxton CC and Lowry SF (1996) Epinephrine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha and potentiates interleukin 10 production during human endotoxemia. J Clin Invest 97: 713–719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vozarova B, Weyer C, Hanson K, Tataranni PA, Bogardus C and Pratley RE (2001) Circulating interleukin-6 in relation to adiposity, insulin action and insulin secretion. Obes Res 9: 414–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Wallenius V, Wallenius K, Ahren B, Rudling M, Carlsten H, Dickson SL, Ohlsson C and Jansson JO (2002) Interleukin-6-deficient mice develop mature-onset obesity. Nat Med 8: 75–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Whelton SP, Chin A, Xin X and He J (2002) Effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Intern Med 136: 493–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Winocour PH, Durrington PN, Bhatnagar D, Mbewu AD, Ishola M, Mackness M and Arrol S (1992) A cross-sectional evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors in coronary heart disease associated with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 18: 173–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • B.K. Pedersen
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Steensberg
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. Fischer
    • 2
    • 2
  • C. Keller
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Keller
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Plomgaard
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Febbraio
    • 1
  • B. Saltin
    • 1
  1. 1.The Copenhagen Muscle Research CentreUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.The Department of Infectious DiseasesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark; Tel.:

Personalised recommendations