The Effects of SO2 Pollutant on Forest Tree Needles at Mountainous Land around Izmir (Turkey)
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Around the city of Izmir, Yamanlar – Manisa (north) Karabelen (south) andKemalpasa mountainous areas exist. The forested area in total covers 122,613.5 ha on these mountainous areas. This forested area has 6,146,387 m3 of wood potential. Industrial complex surroundingthe Aliaga, and thermo-electric power plants working with lignitecoal in the Soma region and some other small industrial establishmentsare located around Izmir and Manisa. These establishements have a vital importance in polluting the air. The forest, which suffers especially from SO2 pollution, consists of Pinus brutia and Pinus nigra. Sulphur contents in 1, 2, 3 yr old needles of the trees were determined to range between 2000–8000 ppm. Microscopic investigation of the tree needles revealed that black blights on the needles indicate destruction of the cells. Annual ring thickness of trees measured showed that there has been a reduction in the forest growth and thisreduction is becoming more serious each year. Reduction in the wood production causes hundreds of billions of Turkish lira of economic loss to the Forestry Administration. It has been concluded at the end of this study that in order to stop theharm that the forests suffer, industrial establishments must pay an `ecological costs' to be added to their product cost items.
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