Sex as a Possible Source of Group Inequivalence in Lovaas (1987)

  • Richard D. Boyd
Article

Abstract

The possibility of differential sex proportions as a confounding factor in the Lovaas (1987) study is raised in this paper. It is argued that the chi-square analysis reported in the original study was inadequate and that the appropriate comparison should be made not between the experimental group and primary control group (Control Group 1) utilizing expected cell frequencies estimated from sample data, but between these two groups using population data to estimate expected cell frequencies. Implications of this interpretation are discussed.

Behavioral treatment autism sex proportions 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev.) Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Baer, D. M. (1993). Quasi-random assignment can be as convincing as random assignment. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 373–375.Google Scholar
  4. Bolton, P., Macdonald, H., Pickles, A., Rios, P., Goode, S., Crowson, M., Bailey A., & Rutter, M. (1994). A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 877–900.Google Scholar
  5. Kazdin, A. E. (1993). Replication and extension of behavioral treatment of autistic disorder. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 377–379.Google Scholar
  6. Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1985). Brief report: Differences in sex ratios in autism as a function of measured intelligence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 185–193.Google Scholar
  7. Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revicki, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 317–330.Google Scholar
  8. Lotter, V. (1966). Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children: 1. Prevalence. Social Psychiatry, 1, 124.Google Scholar
  9. Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3–9.Google Scholar
  10. Lovaas, O. I., & Smith, T. (1988). Intensive behavioral treatment for young autistic children. In B. B. Lahey and A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  11. Lovaas, O. I., Smith, T., & McEachin, J. J. (1989). Clarifying comments on the young autism study: Reply to Schopler, Short, and Mesibov. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 165–167.Google Scholar
  12. McEachin, J. J., Smith, T., & Lovaas, O. I. (1993). Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 359–372.Google Scholar
  13. Mesibov, G. B. (1993). Treatment outcome is encouraging. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 379–380.Google Scholar
  14. Minium, E. D. (1970). Statistical reasoning in psychology and education. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Mundy, P. (1993). Normal versus high-functioning status in children with autism. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 381–384.Google Scholar
  16. Schopler, E., Short, A., & Mesibov, G. (1989). Relation of behavioral treatment to “normal functioning”: Comment on Lovaas. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 162–164.Google Scholar
  17. Smith, T., Klevstrand, M., & Lovaas, O. I. (1995). Behavioral treatment of Rett's disorder: Ineffectiveness in three cases. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 100, 317–322.Google Scholar
  18. Smith, T., McEachin, J. J., & Lovaas, O. I. (1993). Comments on replication and evaluation of outcome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 385–391.Google Scholar
  19. Tsai, L. Y., & Beisler, J. M. (1983). The development of sex differences in infantile autism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 373–378.Google Scholar
  20. Tsai, L. Y., Stewart, M. A., & August, G. (1981). Implication of sex differences in the familial transmission of infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 165–173.Google Scholar
  21. Volkmar, F. R., Szatmari, P., & Sparrow, S. S. (1993). Sex differences in pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23, 579–591.Google Scholar
  22. Wing, L. (1981). Sex ratios in early childhood autism and related conditions. Psychiatric Research, 5, 129–137.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard D. Boyd
    • 1
  1. 1.Golden Gate Regional CenterSan Francisco

Personalised recommendations