European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 109, Issue 7, pp 645–667 | Cite as

Epidemiology of Toxigenic Fungi and their Associated Mycotoxins for Some Mediterranean Crops

  • Antonio Logrieco
  • Antonio Bottalico
  • Giuseppina Mulé
  • Antonio Moretti
  • Giancarlo Perrone


Recent data on the epidemiology of the common mycotoxigenic species of Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium in infected or colonized plants, and in stored or processed plant products from the Mediterranean area are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the toxigenicity of the causal fungal species and the natural occurrence of well known mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, patulin, Alternaria-toxins and moniliformin), as well as some more recently described compounds (fusaproliferin, beauvericin) whose toxigenic potential is not yet well understood. Several Fusarium species reported from throughout the Mediterranean area are responsible of the formation of mycotoxins in infected plants and in plant products, including: Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. cerealis, F. avenaceum, F. sporotrichioides and F. poae, which produce deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenone, zearalenone, moniliformin, and T-2 toxin derivatives in wheat and other small grains affected by head blight or scab, and in maize affected by red ear rot. Moreover, strains of F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans, that form fumonisins, beauvericin, fusaproliferin, and moniliformin, are commonly associated with maize affected by ear rot. Fumonisins, were also associated with Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus and Fusarium endosepsis of figs, caused primarily by F. proliferatum. Toxigenic A. alternata strains and associated tenuazonic acid and alternariols were commonly found in black mould of tomato, black rot of olive and citrus, black point of small cereals, and black mould of several vegetables. Toxigenic strains of A. carbonarius and ochratoxin A were often found associated with black rot of grapes, whereas toxigenic strains of A. flavus and/or P. verrucosum, forming aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively, were found in moulded plant products from small cereals, peanuts, figs, pea, oilseed rape, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, pistachios, and almonds. Finally, toxigenic strains of P. expansum and patulin were frequently found in apple, pear and other fresh fruits affected by blue mould rot, as well as in derived juices and jams.

Fusarium-diseases Alternaria-diseases Aspergillus-diseases Penicillium-diseases trichothecenes fumonisins zearalenone moniliformin fusaproliferin beauvericin enniatins tenuazonic acid alternariols aflatoxins ochratoxins citrinin patulin 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio Logrieco
    • 1
  • Antonio Bottalico
    • 1
  • Giuseppina Mulé
    • 1
  • Antonio Moretti
    • 1
  • Giancarlo Perrone
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Sciences of Food ProductionCNRBariItaly

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