Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus

, Volume 3, Issue 5–6, pp 263–275 | Cite as

Forest Decline Evidence in Southern Turkey and its Possible Dependence on Ozone Trends



During the period between 1991 and 1997, crown condition was monitored at an experimental forest located in Southern Turkey, near Antalya. In order to determine the nutritional status of the stands in the study area, in the years 1992, 1993 and 1998, young and old needles were collected from the labelled trees and nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) of the needles were determined. Between the years 1991 and 1997, the degree of defoliation of the canopies, according to the damage indexes, changes from 10–25% to 25–60%. Between the years 1992 and 1998, examination of nutrition condition of the stands reveal that, sufficient and balanced nutrition status of the trees in the year 1992, becomes insufficient or unbalanced for P, K, and N in 1998.From October 1994 to January 1996, a continuous hourly ozone sampling was performed on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey (30.34°E, 36.47°N) near Antalya. The survey carried out in the summer of 1995 reveals that AOT40f index is 14.612 ppm.h, which exceeds the critical level of 10 ppm.h. As the measured ambient ozone levels are higher than critical level, it has been proposed that ozone may be one of the anthropogenic stress factors causing the forest decline in Southern Turkey observed within this study.

critical level defoliation Southern TurkeyForests tropospheric ozone 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey (author for correspondence
  2. 2.West Mediterranean Research Institute, Ministry of ForestryAntalyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Environmental EngineeringMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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