Forest Decline Evidence in Southern Turkey and its Possible Dependence on Ozone Trends Article DOI:
Cite this article as: Güllü, G., Şirin, G. & Tuncel, G. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus (2003) 3: 263. doi:10.1023/A:1026021716059 Abstract
During the period between 1991 and 1997, crown condition was monitored at an experimental forest located in Southern Turkey, near Antalya. In order to determine the nutritional status of the stands in the study area, in the years 1992, 1993 and 1998, young and old needles were collected from the labelled trees and nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) of the needles were determined. Between the years 1991 and 1997, the degree of defoliation of the canopies, according to the damage indexes, changes from 10–25% to 25–60%. Between the years 1992 and 1998, examination of nutrition condition of the stands reveal that, sufficient and balanced nutrition status of the trees in the year 1992, becomes insufficient or unbalanced for P, K, and N in 1998.From October 1994 to January 1996, a continuous hourly ozone sampling was performed on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey (30.34°E, 36.47°N) near Antalya. The survey carried out in the summer of 1995 reveals that AOT40
f index is 14.612 ppm.h, which exceeds the critical level of 10 ppm.h. As the measured ambient ozone levels are higher than critical level, it has been proposed that ozone may be one of the anthropogenic stress factors causing the forest decline in Southern Turkey observed within this study. critical level defoliation Southern TurkeyForests tropospheric ozone References
Al-Momani, I. F., Aygun, S. and Tuncel, G.: 1998, ‘Wet deposition of major ions and trace elements in the eastern Mediterranean basin’,
J. Geophys. Res.
Astorga, T., Lopez, D., Carazo, N. and Save, R.: 1993, ‘Effecto del viento marino en la vegetation urbana del nuevo litoral Barcelones’,
Actas II Congreso Iberico, SECH, pp. 539–545, as cited in Bussotti and Ferretti (1998).
Badot, P.M. and Garrec, J. P.: 1993, ‘Deperissement local du pin d'Alep (
) le long du littoral mediterraneen’,
Revue Forestiere Française
, 134–140, as cited in Bussotti and Ferretti (1998).
Barnes, J., Gimeno, B., Davison, A., Dizengremel, P., Gerant D., Bussotti, F. and Valissariou, D.: 2000, ‘Air pollution impactes on pine forests in the Mediterranean Basin’, in G. Ne'eman and L. Trabaud (eds.),
Ecology, Biogeography and Management of Pinus halepensis and P. Brutia Forest Ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin, pp. 391–404.
Bussotti, F. and Ferretti, M.: 1998, ‘Air pollution, forest condition and forest decline in Southern Europe: An overview’,
Calbally, I. E. and Roy, C. R.: 1980, ‘Destruction of ozone at the Earth's surface’,
Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc.
Farrar, J. F., Relton, J. and Rutter, A. J.: 1977, ‘Sulphur dioxide and the scarcity of Pinus sylvestris in the industrial Pennines’,
Führer, J. and Achermann, B. (eds.): 1994, ‘UN-ECE critical levels’,
Workshop Report, Bern.
Garland, J. A. and Derwent, R. G.: 1979, ‘Destruction at the ground and the diurnal cycle of concentration of ozone and other gases’,
Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc.
Gellini, R., Pantani, F., Grossoni, P., Bussotti, F., Barbolani, E. and Ranallo, C.: 1985, ‘Further investigation on the causes of the disorder of the coastal vegetation in the Park of San Rossore (Central Italy)’,
European J. Forest Pathol.
Gimeno, B. S., Penuelas, J., Porcuna, J. L. and Reinert, R. A.: 1995, ‘Biomonitoring ozone phytotoxicity in Eastern Spain’,
Water, Air, and Soil Pollut.
Guerzoni, S., Lenaz, R. and Quarantotto, G.: 1988, ‘Field measurements at sea: Atmospheric particulate trace metal end members in the Mediterranean’, CEE, Brussels,
Air Pollut. Res. Rep.
Güllü, G., Olmez, İ., Aygun, S. and Tuncel, G.: 1998, ‘Atmospheric trace element concentrations over the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Factors affecting temporal variability’,
J. Geophys. Res.
Harter, P.: 1989,
Acidic Deposition - Ecological Effects on Soils and Forests
, IEA Coal Research Publications, London.
Krauchi, N.: 1993, ‘Climate change and forest ecosystems - An overview’, in R. Schlaepfer (ed.),
Long Term Implications of Climate Change and Air Pollution on Forest Ecosystems
, Birmensdorf, WSL, IUFRO World Series, Vol. 4, IUFRO, Vienna, pp. 53–76.
Logan, J. A.: 1985, ‘Tropospheric ozone: Seasonal behaviour, trends and anthropogenic influence’,
J. Geophys. Res.
Naveh, Z., Steinberger, E. H., Chaim, S. and Rotmann, A.: 1981, ‘Photochemical air pollutants. A treat to Mediterranean coniferous forest and upland ecosystems’,
Mazurski, K. R.: 1986, ‘The destruction of forests in the Polish Sudetes Mountains by industrial emissions’,
Forest Ecol. Manage.
NSRMP (National Sea Research and Monitoring Program): 2000, ‘Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Turkish Straits System, Black Sea and atmospheric sub projects, period 1995-1999’, in İlkay Salihoğlu and Erhan Mutlu (eds.),
Synthesis Report, November 2000.
Sandermann, H., Wellburn, A. R. and Heath, R. L.: 1997,
Forest Decline and Ozone. A Comparison of Controlled Chamber and Field Experiments, Springer, Berlin.
Sanz, M. J., Calatayud, V. and Calvo, E.: 1999, ‘Spatial pattern of ozone injury in Aleppo pine and air pollution dynamics in the Mediterranean’,
Phys. Chem. Earth (C)
Schütt, P. and Cowling, E. B.: 1985, ‘Waldsterben, a general decline of forests in Central Europe: Symptoms, development and possible causes’,
Stefan, K. A., Fürst, R., Hacker, R. and Bartels, U.: 1997,
Forest Foliar Condition in Europe. Results of Large-scale Foliar Chemistry Surveys (Survey 1995 and Data from Previous Years), EC-UN/ECE, 1997, Brussels, Geneva, 207 pp.
Reddy, G. B., Reiner, R. A. and Eason, G.: 1995, ‘Loblolly pine needle nutrient and soil enzyme activity as influenced by ozone and acid rain chemistry’,
Soil Biol. Biochem.
Manual on Methods and Criteria for Harmonized Sampling, Assessment, Monitoring and Analysis of the Effects of Air Pollution on Forests, 3rd edn., Hamburg and Prague, 177 pp.
Velissariou, D., Davison, A. W., Barnes, J. D., Pfirmann, T., MacLean, D. C. and Holevas, C. D.: 1992, ‘Effects of air pollution on
Mill. Pollution levels in Attica Greece’,
Viezee, W., Johnson, W. B. and Singh, H. B.: 1983, ‘Stratospheric ozone in the lower troposphere - II Assessment of downward flux and ground-level impact’,
Google Scholar Copyright information
© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003