Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 50, Issue 8, pp 855–870 | Cite as

Diversity of native rice (Oryza Poaceae:) species of Costa Rica

  • Alejandro Zamora
  • Cynthia Barboza
  • Jorge Lobo
  • Ana M. Espinoza

Abstract

We found several populations of wild Oryza species in the lowlands of Costa Rica. The plants showed extensive morphological variation, suggesting the presence of several species. In the morphologic study, 33 traits were scored for plants of all the species. A principal component analysis revealed the significant morphological separation of the different species. The analyses indicated that there are three species, O. grandi­glumis, O. latifolia and O. glumaepatula. Two putative hybrid types were found, both significantly differing in their morphology from the known species and intermediate at several traits. O. grandi­glumis is a new record for Costa Rican flora. Its main population is located in Caño Negro Wildlife Refuge, Los Chiles, Alajuela. O. latifolia is distributed throughout the lowlands of the country and the plants of the Atlantic slope are significantly bigger in general habit than those of the Guanacaste area. During this study a population of O. glumaepatula of hundreds of thousands of plants was discovered in the Medio Queso River wetland, Los Chiles, Alajuela. This population is the most important source of genes for cultivar's improvement from the primary gene pool of rice in Costa Rica. The small ligule and the wide flag leaf characteristic of the two CCDD species separated them from the AA diploid O. glumaepatula. Seed size, ligule size, number of branches in the panicle, plant height and sterile lemma length are all bigger in O. grandi­glumis, and influenced the second factor that separated the CCDD species in two discrete clusters. The species found offer great possibilities for the improvement of rice cultivars and they should be thoroughly studied and appropriately protected.

Biodiversity Conservation Costa Rica. Genetic resources O. grandi­glumis O. latifolia O. rufipogon O. glumaepatula Plant morphology Rice Wild rice 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aggarwal R.K., Brar D.S., Huang N. and Khush G.S. 1996. Differentiation within CCDD genome species in the genus Oryza as revealed by total genomic hybridization and RFLP analysis. Rice Genetics Newsletter 13: 54-57.Google Scholar
  2. Akimoto M. 1998. Population genetic structure of wild rice Oryza glumaepatula distributed in the Amazon flood area influenced by life history traits. Molecular Ecology 7: 1371-1381.Google Scholar
  3. Akimoto M. 1999. Biosystematics of the Oryza AA genome wild taxa (Oryza sativa complex) by morpho-physiological traits, isozyme and RFLPs, PhD, Hokkaido University, Japan.Google Scholar
  4. Ando A. and Rangel P.H. 1994. Agronomical viewpoints. In: Morishima H. and Martins P.S. (eds), Investigations of plant genetic resources in the Amazon basin with the emphasis on the genus Oryza. Report of 1992/93 Amazon Project.Google Scholar
  5. Cabezas E. and Espinoza A.M. 2000. El arroz en América. su introducción y primeras siembras. Revista de Historia de América 126: 7-18.Google Scholar
  6. Chu Y.E., Morishima H. and Oka H.I. 1969. Reproductive barriers distributed in cultivated rice species and their wild relatives. Japan J. Genetics. 44: 207-223.Google Scholar
  7. Doi K., Yoshimura A., Nakano M. and Vaughan D. 1995. Phylogenetic study of A genome species of genus Oryza using nuclear RFLP. Rice Genetics Newsletter 12.Google Scholar
  8. Ge S., Sang T., Lu B. and Hong D.Y. 1999. Phylogeny of rice genomes with emphasis on origins of allotetraploid species. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96: 14400-14405.Google Scholar
  9. Herrera W. and Gomez L.D. 1993. Mapa de unidades bioticas de Costa Rica, escala 1: 685 000. The Nature Conservancy et al., Costa Rica.Google Scholar
  10. Hinata K. and Oka H.I. 1962. A survey of hybrid sterility relationships in the Asian forms of Oryza perennis and Oryza sativa. Japan Journal of Genetics 37: 314-328.Google Scholar
  11. Holdridge L.R. 1967. Life zone ecology; with photographic supplement prepared by Joseph A. Tosi. Tropical Science Center, San José, Costa Rica, Rev. ed. 206 p.Google Scholar
  12. Iltis H.H. 1988. Serendipity in the exploration of biodiversity.What good are weedy tomatoes? In: Biodiversty (ed.), Sixth edition. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 106-116.Google Scholar
  13. Jackson M. 1995. Protecting the heritage of rice biodiversity. GeoJournal 35.3: 267-274.Google Scholar
  14. Janzen D. 1999. Gardenification of tropical conserved wildlands. multitasking, multicropping, and multiusers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 96: 5987-5994.Google Scholar
  15. Jena K.K. and Khush G.S. 1988. Cytogenetic relationships among the three species of Oryza latifolia complex. Rice Genetics Newsletter 5: 74-75.Google Scholar
  16. Jena K.K. and Kochert G. 1991. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of CCDD genome species of the genus Oryza L. Molecular Biology 16: 831-839.Google Scholar
  17. Juliano A.B., Naredo M.E. and Jackson M.T. 1998. Taxonomic status of Oryza glumaepatula Steud. I.Comparative morphological studies of New World diploids and Asian AA genome species. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 45: 197-203.Google Scholar
  18. Lu B.-R., Naredo B., Juliano B. and Jackson T. 1998. Taxonomic status of Oryza glumaepatula Steud. III. Assessment of genomic affinity among AA genome species from the New World, Asia, and Australia. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 45: 215-223.Google Scholar
  19. Mann C.C. 1999. Crop scientists seek a new revolution. Science January 1999. 310-314.Google Scholar
  20. Minitab 10.51x. 1995. Minitab Inc. 3081 Enterprise Drive, State College, PA.Google Scholar
  21. Moncada P., Martinez C.P., Borrero J., Chatel M., Gauch H. Jr, Guimaraes E. et al. 2001. Quantitative trait loci for yield and yield components in an Oryza sativa 3 Oryza rufipogon BC2 F2 population evaluated in an upland environment. Theor. Appl. Genet. 102: 41-52.Google Scholar
  22. Morishima H. 1969. Phenetic similarity and phylogenetic relationships among strains of Oryza perennis, estimated by methods of numerical taxonomy. Evolution 23: 429-443.Google Scholar
  23. Morishima H. 1994. Background information about Oryza species in tropical America. In: Morishima H. and Martins P.S. (eds), Investigations of plant genetic resources in the Amazon basin with the emphasis on the genus Oryza. Report of 1992/93 Amazon Project.Google Scholar
  24. Morishima H. and Oka H.I. 1970. A survey of genetic variations in the populations of wild Oryza species and their cultivated relatives. Jpn. J. Genet. 371-385.Google Scholar
  25. Morishima H., Sano Y. and Oka H.I. 1992. Evolutionary studies in cultivated rice and its wild relatives. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 8: 135-184.Google Scholar
  26. Naredo M.EB., Juliano A.B., Lu B.R. and Jackson M.T. 1998. Taxonomic status of O. glumaepatula Steud. II. Hybridization between NewWorld diploids and AA genome species from Asia and Australia. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 45: 205-214.Google Scholar
  27. Oka H.I. and Chang W. 1961. Hybrid swarms between wild and cultivated rice species, Oryza perennis and O. sativa. Evolution 15: 418-430.Google Scholar
  28. Plotkin M.J. 1988. The outlook for new agricultural and industrial products from the tropics. In: Wilson E.O. (ed.), Biodiversty. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., pp. 106-116.Google Scholar
  29. Pohl R.W. 1980. Family No. 15 Graminae. In: Burger W. (ed.), Flora Costarricensis. Fieldiana Botany.Google Scholar
  30. Provan J., Corbett G., McNicol J.W. and Powel W. 1997. Chloro plast DNA variability in wild and cultivated rice (Oryza spp.) revealed by polymorphic chloroplast simple sequence repeats. Genome 40: 104-110.Google Scholar
  31. Quesada T., Lobo J. and Espinoza A.M. 2002. Genetic structure of O. latifolia from Costa Rica. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, in press.Google Scholar
  32. Ronald P.C. 1997. Making Rice Disease Resistant. Scientific American, November.Google Scholar
  33. Sittenfeld A. and Villors R. 1994. Costa Rica's INBio: Collabora tive biodiversity research agreements with the pharnaceutical industry. In: Principles of conservation Biology. Meffe, G.K. and Carrol, C.R. (eds) Sinauer Associates Inc. Sunderland, Mass 600 p.Google Scholar
  34. Sánchez E. 1998. Ultraestructura de las especies de Oryza de Costa Rica. Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica, Tesis de Licenciature.Google Scholar
  35. Second G. 1985. Evolutionary relationships in the Sativa group of Oryza based on isozyme data. Genet. Sel. Evol. 17: 89-114.Google Scholar
  36. Tanksley S.D. and McCouch S. 1997. Seed banks and molecular maps. unlocking genetic potential from the wild. Science 277: 1063-1066.Google Scholar
  37. Vaughan D.A. 1994. The wild relatives of rice. a genetic resources hand book. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines, 137p.Google Scholar
  38. Voeks R.A. and Armour W.J. 1995. Biological Relationships Between Africa and South America. The Geographical Review, (Book reviews) vol 85 01-01-1995, pp (http: / /www.platetec tonics.com / archives / archive5.htm.Google Scholar
  39. Wang Z.Y., Second G. and Tanksley S.D. 1992. Polymorphism and phylogenetic relationships among species in the genus Oryza as determined by analysis of nuclear RFLPs. Theor. Appl. Genet. 83: 565-581.Google Scholar
  40. Woodburne I. and Zinsmeister M. 1982. Fossil land mammal from Antartica. Science 218: 284.Google Scholar
  41. Xiao J., Li J., Grandillo S., Nag Ahn S., Yuan L., Tanksley S.D. et al. 1998. Identification of trait-improving Quantitative Trait Loci alleles from a wild rice relative, Oryza rufipogon. Genetics 150: 899-909.Google Scholar
  42. Yang S.J., Jin Y.D., Lee S.K. and Chun G.S. 1991. Interspecific F1 hybrids resistant to rice black streaked dwarf virus through embryo rescue. Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration (SUWEON), 33(2 Rice), 1-5.Google Scholar
  43. Zamora A., Ruiz E., Lobo J. and Espinoza A.M. 2002. Genetic structure of the populations of the Costa Rican wild rice O. glumaepatula Steud., (Poaceae) In preparation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alejandro Zamora
    • 1
  • Cynthia Barboza
    • 1
  • Jorge Lobo
    • 2
  • Ana M. Espinoza
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación en Biología Celular y Molecular (CIBCM)Universidad de Costa RicaSan Jose
  2. 2.Escuela de BiologíaUniversidad de Costa RicaSan JoséCosta Rica

Personalised recommendations