Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 33–45 | Cite as

A Cognitive-Interpersonal Approach to Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescent Children

  • Karen D. Rudolph
  • Constance Hammen
  • Dorli Burge
Article

Abstract

Cognitive and interpersonal aspects of depressive symptoms were investigated in a community sample of children. Eighty-one 8- to 12-year-olds completed scales assessing cognitive representations of social relationships and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Teachers provided ratings of peer rejection. Children with elevated levels of depressive symptoms displayed increased negativity in their beliefs about self, family, and peers, as well as distinct patterns of interpersonal information processing. Anxiety symptoms did not make a unique contribution beyond depression to negative representations of family and peers; in contrast, symptom-specific profiles of self-representations were found. Structural equation analysis supported a model linking negative interpersonal representations, peer rejection, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that future studies may benefit from approaches that incorporate both cognitive and interpersonal variables as predictors of child depression.

Depression children interpersonal cognitions 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Altmann, E. O., & Gotlib, I. H. (1988). The social behavior of depressed children: An observational study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 29–44.Google Scholar
  2. Armsden, G. C., McCauley, E., Greenberg, M. T., Burke, P. M., & Mitchell, J. R. (1990). Parent and peer attachment in early adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 683–697.Google Scholar
  3. Asarnow, J. R., Goldstein, M. J., Tompson, M., & Guthrie, D. (1993). One-year outcomes of depressive disorders in child psychiatric inpatients: Evaluation of the prognostic power of a brief measure of expressed emotion. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 129–137.Google Scholar
  4. Baldwin, M. W. (1992). Relational schemas and the processing of social information. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 461–484.Google Scholar
  5. Barrera, M., & Garrison-Jones, C. (1992). Family and peer support as specific correlates of adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 1–16.Google Scholar
  6. Bentler, P. M. (1989). EQS Structural equations program manual. Los Angeles: BMDP Statistical Software.Google Scholar
  7. Bowlby, J. (1980). Loss: Sadness and depression. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  8. Ciochetti, D., & Schneider-Rosen, K. (1984). Toward a transactional model of childhood depression. In D. Cicchetti & K. Schneider-Rosen (Eds.), Childhood depression. New directions for child development (pp. 5–27). San Francisco: Josey Bass.Google Scholar
  9. Cole, D. A. (1990). Relation of social and academic competence to depressive symptoms in childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 422–429.Google Scholar
  10. Cole, D. A., & McPherson, A. E. (1993). Relation of family subsystems to adolescent depression: Implementing a new family assessment strategy. Journal of Family Psychology, 7, 119–133.Google Scholar
  11. Cole, D. A., & Rehm, L. P. (1986). Family interaction patterns and childhood depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 297–314.Google Scholar
  12. Cole, D. A., & Turner, J. E., Jr. (1993). Models of cognitive mediation and moderation in child depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 271–281.Google Scholar
  13. Conners, C. K. (1973). Rating scales for use in drug studies with children. Psychopharmacology Bulletin (Special Issue—Pharmacotherapy with children), 24–29.Google Scholar
  14. Coyne, J. C. (1976). Depression and the response of others. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186–193.Google Scholar
  15. Cummings, E. M., & Cicchetti, D. (1990). Toward a transactional model of relations between attachment and depression. In M. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 339–372). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  16. Dubow, E. F., & Ullman, D. G. (1989). Assessing social support in elementary school children: The Survey of Children's Social Support. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 52–64.Google Scholar
  17. Garber, J., Weiss, B., & Shanley, N. (1993). Cognitions, depressive symptoms, and development in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 47–57.Google Scholar
  18. Goodyer, I., Wright, C., & Altham, P. (1990). The friendships and recent life events of anxious and depressed school-age children. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 689–698.Google Scholar
  19. Hammen, C., & Goodman-Brown, T. (1990). Self-schemas and vulnerability to specific life stress in children at risk for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 215–227.Google Scholar
  20. Hammen, C., Miklowitz, D. J., & Dyck, D. G. (1986). Stability and severity of parameters of depressive self-schema responding. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4, 23–45.Google Scholar
  21. Hammen, C., & Rudolph, K. D. (1996). Childhood depression. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology (pp. 153–195). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. Hammen, C., & Zupan, B. A. (1984). Self-schemas, depression, and the processing of personal information in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37, 598–608.Google Scholar
  23. Harter, S., Marold, D. B., & Whitesell, N. R. (1992). Model of psychosocial risk factors leading to suicidal ideation in young adolescents. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 167–188.Google Scholar
  24. Hops, H., Lewinsohn, P. M., Andrews, J. A., & Roberts, R. E. (1990). Psychosocial correlates of depressive symptomatology among high school students. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 3, 211–220.Google Scholar
  25. Jacobsen, R. H., Lahey, B. B., & Strauss, C. C. (1983). Correlates of depressed mood in normal children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 29–40.Google Scholar
  26. Kaslow, N. J., Deering, C. G., & Racusin, G. R. (1994). Depressed children and their families. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 39–59.Google Scholar
  27. Kaslow, N. J., Rehm, L. P., & Siegel, A. W. (1984). Social-cognitive and cognitive correlates of depression in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 605–620.Google Scholar
  28. Kazdin, A. E., Esveldt-Dawson, K., & Matson, J. L. (1982). Changes in children's social skills performance as a function of preassessment experiences. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 11, 243–248.Google Scholar
  29. Kobak, R. R., Sudler, N., & Gamble, W. (1991). Attachment and depressive symptoms during adolescence: A developmental pathways analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 461–474.Google Scholar
  30. Kovacs, M. (1980/81). Rating scales to assess depression in school-aged children. Acta Paedopsychiatry, 46, 305–315.Google Scholar
  31. Larson, R. W., Raffaelli, M., Richards, M. H., Ham, M., & Jewell, L. (1990). Ecology of depression in late childhood and early adolescence: A profile of daily states and activities. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 92–102.Google Scholar
  32. Laurent, J., & Stark, K. D. (1993). Testing the cognitive content-specificity hypothesis with anxious and depressed youngsters. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 226–237.Google Scholar
  33. Leitenberg, H., Yost, L. W., & Carroll-Wilson, M. (1986). Negative cognitive errors in children: Questionnaire development, normative data, and comparisons between children with and without self-reported symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, and evaluation anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 528–536.Google Scholar
  34. Lewinsohn, P. M. (1974). A behavioral approach to depression. In R. Friedman & M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 157–185). Washington, DC: Winston-Wiley.Google Scholar
  35. Lewinsohn, P. M., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., Rohde, P., Gotlib, I. H., & Hops, H. (1994). Adolescent psychopathology: II. Psychosocial risk factors for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 302–315.Google Scholar
  36. Lizardi, H., Klein, D. N., Quimette, P. C., Riso, L. P., Anderson, R. L., & Donaldson, S. K. (1995). Reports of the childhood home environment in early-onset dysthymia and episodic major depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 132–139.Google Scholar
  37. Main, M., Kaplan, N., & Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. In I. Bretherton & E. Waters (Eds.), Growing points in attachment theory and research Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50, 66–104.Google Scholar
  38. Margolies, P. J., & Weintraub, S. (1977). The revised 56-item CRPBI as a research instrument: Reliability and factor structure. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 472–476.Google Scholar
  39. Marton, P., Connolly, J., Kutcher, S., & Korenblum, M. (1993). Cognitive social skills and social self-appraisal in depressed adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 739–744.Google Scholar
  40. McCauley, E., Mitchell, J. R., Burke, P., & Moss, S. (1988). Cognitive attributes of depression in children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 903–908.Google Scholar
  41. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1992). Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: A 5-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 405–422.Google Scholar
  42. Panak, W. F., & Garber, J. (1992). Role of aggression, rejection, and attributions in the prediction of depression in children. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 145–165.Google Scholar
  43. Pappini, D., Roggman, L., & Anderson, J. (1991). Early-adolescent perceptions of attachment to mother and father: A test of the emotional-distancing and buffering hypothesis. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 258–275.Google Scholar
  44. Parker, G. (1981). Parental reports of depressives: An investigation of several explanations. Journal of Affective Disorders, 3, 131–140.Google Scholar
  45. Renouf, A. G., & Harter, S. (1990). Low self-worth and anger as components of the depressive experience in young adolescents. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 293–310.Google Scholar
  46. Reynolds, C. R., & Richmond, B. O. (1978). What I think and feel: A revised measure of children's manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 271–284.Google Scholar
  47. Robins, C. J., & Hinkley, K. (1989). Social-cognitive processing and depressive symptoms in children: A comparison of measures. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17, 29–36.Google Scholar
  48. Rudolph, K. D., Hammen, C., & Burge, D. (1994). Interpersonal functioning and depressive symptoms in childhood: Addressing the issues of specificity and comorbidity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 355–371.Google Scholar
  49. Rudolph, K. D., Hammen, C., & Burge, D. (1995). Cognitive representations of self, family, and peers in school-age children: Links with social competence and sociometric status. Child Development, 66, 1385–1402.Google Scholar
  50. Safran, J. D. (1990). Towards a refinement of cognitive therapy in light of interpersonal theory. I. Theory. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 87–105.Google Scholar
  51. Sanders, M. R., Dadds, M. R., Johnston, B. M., & Cash, R. (1992). Childhood depression and conduct disorder I. Behavioral, affective, and cognitive aspects of family problem-solving interactions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 495–504.Google Scholar
  52. Smucker, M. R., Craighead, W. E., Craighead, L. W., & Green, B. J. (1986). Normative and reliability data for the Children's Depression Inventory. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 25–39.Google Scholar
  53. Stark, K. D., Humphrey, L. L., Laurent, J., Livingston, R., & Christopher, J. (1993). Cognitive, behavioral, and family factors in the differentiation of depressive and anxiety disorders during childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 5, 878–886.Google Scholar
  54. Weisz, J. R., Rudolph, K. D., Granger, D. A., & Sweeney, L. (1992). Cognition, competence, and coping in child and adolescent depression: Research findings, developmental concerns, therapeutic implications. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 627–653.Google Scholar
  55. Weisz, J. R., Sweeney, L., Proffitt, V., & Carr, T. (1994). Control-related beliefs and self-reported depressive symptoms in late childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 411–418.Google Scholar
  56. Westen, D. (1991). Social cognition and object relations. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 429–455.Google Scholar
  57. Wierzbicki, M., & McCabe, M. (1988). Social skills and subsequent depressive symptomatology in children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 203–208.Google Scholar
  58. Zupan, B. A., Hammen, C., & Jaenicke, C. (1987). The effects of current mood and prior depressive history on self-schematic processing in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 43, 149–158.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen D. Rudolph
    • 1
  • Constance Hammen
    • 2
  • Dorli Burge
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of IllinoisChampaign
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California at Los AngelesLos Angeles

Personalised recommendations