Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 85–99 | Cite as

The Effect of Selected Classical Music and Spontaneous Imagery on Plasma β-Endorphin

  • Cathy H. McKinney
  • Frederick C. Tims
  • Adarsh M. Kumar
  • Mahendra Kumar


This study explored the effect of music and imagery on plasma β-endorphin in 78 undergraduates. Subjects screened for relevant psychological and health criteria were assigned to music imaging, silent imaging, music listening, and control conditions. Subjects donated 15 ml of blood prior to and following the 2-hr intervention period. There were no group differences in potential confounding variables. Split-plot factorial analysis controlling for individual differences in pretest level of β-endorphin revealed that those in the music imaging group experienced a significant pre–post decline in β-endorphin, while no other group demonstrated any significant pre–post difference. These data suggest that music imaging may lower peripheral β-endorphin levels in healthy subjects. Further exploration of the effects of music and imagery interventions on physiology and health may be warranted.

music imagery β-endorphin 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cathy H. McKinney
    • 1
  • Frederick C. Tims
    • 1
  • Adarsh M. Kumar
    • 1
  • Mahendra Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MiamiUSA

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